Discover more from Tracking People's Daily
Ding Xuexiang on Unity & Struggle - China-Vietnam Joint Statement - Xi Condoles India Bridge Accident - Li Addresses SCO Meeting - Self-Revolution Commentary - Shehbaz Sharif Interview
Here are the stories and pieces that I found noteworthy in the Wednesday, November 2, 2022, edition of the People’s Daily.
Page 1: At the top of the page is a report on Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang sending messages of condolences to the Indian President and Prime Minister, respectively, on the bridge collapse incident in Gujarat.
“In his message, Xi said he was shocked to learn of the deadly collapse. On behalf of the Chinese government and people, Xi extended deep condolences over the deaths and sincere sympathies to the bereaved families and the injured.”
The other lead article on the page is the start of a new series discussing rural revitalisation. The article quotes from Xi’s speech at the 20th Party Congress: “We will move faster to build up China’s strength in agriculture and steadily promote the revitalisation of businesses, talent, culture, ecosystems, and organizations in the countryside.” It says that this is a “major decision and arrangement for building a comprehensively modern socialist country” and the “main direction of agricultural and rural modernisation in the new era and on the new journey.”
Some of the key points the piece emphasises are:
Ensuring production capacity in order to maintain food security and ensure that the “Chinese people's rice bowl is firmly in their own hands.”
Scientific and technological innovation and self-reliance are the fundamental driving force for building an agricultural power.
Modernisation of agriculture, which includes use of new technologies. The key objectives in this regard are to improve land output rate, labour productivity and resource utilisation rate.
As of 2021, the comprehensive mechanisation rate in crop cultivation and harvest has exceeded 72%.
Chinese agricultural scientists “must continue to tackle key problems and breed more high-quality ‘Chinese seeds’.”
Industrial revitalisation is the foundation of comprehensive rural revitalisation. This is essentially about building an entire industrial chain around agricultural output. “At present, the ratio of the output value of China’s agricultural product processing industry to the total agricultural output value is 2.5:1, which is lower than the 3:1 to 4:1 in developed countries. This reflects the shortcomings of China’s agricultural industrial chain and indicates that the comprehensive benefits are still not high,” explained Ye Xingqing, Director General and Research Fellow, Research Department of Rural Economy, Development Research Center of the State Council. “目前，我国农产品加工业产值与农业总产值之比为2.5∶1，低于发达国家的3∶1至4∶1，反映出我国农业产业链条依然较短，综合效益依然不高。今后应加强农业产业延链、补链、壮链、强链，拓展农业增值增效空间，把农村的资源优势转化为产品优势、产业优势。”国务院发展研究中心农村经济研究部部长叶兴庆说.
Third, there’s a report (English report) on Li Keqiang’s remarks, which are published in full on Page 2, (full English speech) at the SCO Heads of Government of Member States meeting, which took place last night. Li put forward five proposals.
First, safeguarding security and stability to foster a sound environment for development. China is ready to deepen law enforcement and security cooperation with all parties to provide safeguards for the economic and social development of all countries.
Second, expanding trade and investment to bolster regional economic recovery. He said: “The SCO members are all participants, builders and beneficiaries of economic globalization. We need to jointly uphold the WTO-centered multilateral trading regime and support the development of an open world economy. We need to further tap our potential for economic cooperation and trade, harmonize our rules of trade and explore institutional arrangements, to enhance trade and investment facilitation.”
Third, enhancing connectivity to realize integrated development of the region. “We need to further align the Belt and Road Initiative with our national development strategies and regional cooperation initiatives, and enhance policy communication and coordination. We need to build up infrastructure hardware in transportation and communications and enhance “soft connectivity” of information and data in an integrated manner, to speed up regional economic integration. China suggests that we all pitch in to develop the Smart Customs, Smart Borders and Smart Connectivity, engage in customs clearance facilitation programs for rail transportation, promote mutual recognition of Authorized Economic Operators (AEOs), and build more ‘single window’ platforms for international trade, to raise the efficiency of clearance at ports of entry.” He further said: “China suggests that we continue to expand the scale of local currency settlement and craft new models of investment and financing, to better support our major projects and industrial cooperation. China looks forward to your active support and participation in the SCO industrial and supply chains forum that China will host next year…”
Fourth, promoting sustainable development to build up resilience against risks. Efforts must be made to enhance the capacity of regional countries for food and energy supply and pursue a balanced and orderly transition to green and low-carbon development.
Fifth, enhancing people-to-people and cultural exchanges to strengthen the bond between peoples. SCO countries need to fully leverage the cooperation mechanisms on education, culture, science, technology and press, and ensure the success of activities under the SCO Year of Tourism next year.
After this, Li talked about the state of the Chinese economy, basically arguing that the leadership had responded “swiftly and resolutely” to the challenges this year. The crux of the policy has been “helping market entities stay afloat and keeping employment and prices stable. This helped us to keep the major economic indicators within an appropriate range,” Li explained. “The total volume of tax and fee cuts, deferrals and tax refund in the first three quarters rose by over 3.4 trillion yuan, and is expected to reach four trillion yuan for the whole year.”
On the policy direction following the 20th Party Congress, Li said: “We will fully and faithfully apply the new development philosophy in its entirety, accelerate the creation of a new development paradigm, and focus on high-quality development, to improve the people’s wellbeing and raise their quality of life. We will stay committed to the fundamental national policy of reform and opening-up and the win-win strategy of opening-up. China’s door will open still wider. We will continue on the path of peaceful development…”
Fourth, there’s a consolidated report on Li Keqiang, Li Zhanshu and Wang Yang meeting CPV chief Nguyen Phu Trong. Xinhua English has reports on all three meetings.
The report on Li Keqiang’s comments says:
“He called on the two countries to maintain high-level exchanges, enhance communication and mutual learning, and deepen the alignment of their development strategies to address global uncertainties and instabilities with the stability of the China-Vietnam relationship. Li said China is willing to implement the consensus the two sides have already reached, and make full use of convenient conditions such as geographical proximity and complementary industrial advantages to upgrade bilateral economic and trade cooperation and facilitate cooperation in key areas. ‘China is ready to import more marketable agricultural products from Vietnam and jointly maintain the facilitation of trade with Vietnam at border ports,’ he said. On China-ASEAN relations, Li said China stands ready to work with ASEAN countries to consolidate traditional friendship, promote cooperation in areas across the board to yield more achievements, and jointly maintain the peace and stability of the South China Sea, so as to create an enabling environment for their respective development and bring more benefits to the people of the region.”
The report on Li Zhanshu’s meeting says:
“Li said that China's NPC is willing to further strengthen exchanges and cooperation with Vietnam's National Assembly and contribute to deepening the China-Vietnam comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership in the new era.”
The report on Wang Yang’s meeting says:
“Wang said the CPPCC is studying and implementing the spirit of the 20th CPC National Congress and is willing to work with the Vietnam Fatherland Front (VFF) to implement the consensus reached by the top leaders of the two parties, inherit and carry forward the traditional friendship between China and Vietnam, deepen friendly exchanges at all levels, carry out work experience exchanges in the fields of political participation and discussion, and make positive contributions to building the two countries into a community with a shared future that bears strategic significance.”
Meanwhile, PBSC member Cai Qi had a video chat with Vo Van Thuong, member of the CPV Politburo, who is accompanying Nguyen Phu Trong on his visit to China. Strange that this was a video chat, but the others were individual meetings. The report basically has Cai saying that the Xi-Trong meeting had “charted the course and provided new impetus for the development of China-Vietnam relations and the socialist cause of the two countries. China is ready to work with Vietnam to implement the important consensus reached by the top leaders of the two parties, continue to carry forward the fine tradition of friendship and mutual trust, and give full play to the political guiding role of inter-party exchanges.”
Next, there’s a report on the conclusion of the 24th session of the CPPCC National Committee’s standing committee meeting. The piece carries one-line summaries of the remarks made by the members. These basically reiterate the key talking points coming out of the 20th Party Congress on issues like high-quality development, Chinese-style modernisation, Taiwan policy, Hong Kong policy, environmental protection, technological self-reliance, the leadership of the CPC as the vanguard, etc.
Xinhua English summarises it well when it says: “They expressed complete agreement with the grand blueprint charted and plans made at the 20th CPC National Congress on building a modern socialist country in all respects and pledged efforts to work and strive together in unity.”
Finally, there’s a commentary on self-revolution. This argues that through unremitting efforts, the Party has identified self-revolution as the second answer to overcome the challenge of the cycle of dynastic rise and fall. There’s praise for work done over the past 10 years to ensure comprehensive and strict Party governance. In this, the piece says that historic and pioneering achievements have been made, many long-term problems that had been unresolved have been addressed and stubborn maladies and serious hidden dangers have been eliminated from the Party, state and armed forces. “十年磨一剑”，全面从严治党取得了历史性、开创性成就，产生了全方位、深层次影响，刹住了一些多年未刹住的歪风邪气，解决了许多长期没有解决的顽瘴痼疾，消除了党、国家、军队内部存在的严重隐患，自我净化、自我完善、自我革新、自我提高能力显著增强，管党治党宽松软状况得到根本扭转，风清气正的党内政治生态不断形成和发展.
“Looking back on the course of the Party’s century-long struggle, we have relied on developing people's democracy and accepting people's supervision and relied on comprehensive and strict Party governance and promoting self-revolution internally; we have had the courage to uphold the truth and correct mistakes, and we have the courage to turn the blade inward and cure the poison, thereby ensuring the Party’s long-lasting prosperity and continuous development.” 回望百年奋斗历程，党外靠发展人民民主、接受人民监督，内靠全面从严治党、推进自我革命，勇于坚持真理、修正错误，勇于刀刃向内、刮骨疗毒，保证了党长盛不衰、不断发展壮大.
It adds that “the courage to carry out self-revolution is a distinctive character cultivated by the Party’s century-old struggle, and it is also the Party’s greatest advantage.” 勇于自我革命是党百年奋斗培育的鲜明品格，也是党最大的优势.
Within this context, going forward, the article says that: “We should unify our thoughts and actions into the spirit of the 20th Party Congress, conscientiously implement the general requirements of Party building in the new era, improve the system of comprehensive and strict Party governance, comprehensively promote the party's self-purification, self-perfection, self-innovation and self-improvement, and uphold and strengthen the centralised and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee, unremittingly use Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era to cast souls, improve the Party’s norms and systems for self-revolution, build a team of high-quality cadres worthy of the important task of national rejuvenation, strengthen the political and organisational functions of Party organisations, and adhere to strictness in order to strengthen the integrity and discipline, and resolutely win the protracted war against corruption.” 我们要把思想和行动统一到党的二十大精神上来，认真贯彻落实新时代党的建设总要求，健全全面从严治党体系，全面推进党的自我净化、自我完善、自我革新、自我提高，坚持和加强党中央集中统一领导，坚持不懈用习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想凝心铸魂，完善党的自我革命制度规范体系，建设堪当民族复兴重任的高素质干部队伍，增强党组织政治功能和组织功能，坚持以严的基调强化正风肃纪，坚决打赢反腐败斗争攻坚战持久战.
“As long as we vigorously carry forward the great spirit of founding the Party, stay true to our original mission, be brave in self-revolution, and constantly remove all harmful factors that damage the Party's advanced nature and purity, and keep removing all pathogens that erode the Party's healthy body, we will surely be able to ensure that the Party never changes in quality, colour, and flavour, and ensure that the Party will always remain the strong leadership core in the historical process of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.” 前进道路上，只要大力弘扬伟大建党精神，不忘初心使命，勇于自我革命，不断清除一切损害党的先进性和纯洁性的有害因素，不断清除一切侵蚀党的健康肌体的病原体，我们就一定能够确保党永远不变质、不变色、不变味，确保党在新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的历史进程中始终成为坚强领导核心.
The final paragraph calls for uniting behind the central committee with Xi as the core and reiterated the importance of the Two Establishments and the 4-4-2 formulation.
Page 2: There’s an interview with Pakistani PM Shehbaz Sharif, who is visiting China. He offers a lot of praise for the CPC and its “unique” achievements. The piece informs that Sharif first visited China in 1981 as an entrepreneur and has since seen China change with every visit. He adds: “The development experience China has explored can be of reference to other countries in the world.”
On CPEC, the piece says this: “In recent years, the construction of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has continued to advance, providing important support for the development of Pakistan’s transportation, energy and other sectors. CPEC can greatly help Pakistan meet the challenges posed by climate change by developing renewable energy. At the same time, related clean energy projects have created more than 46,000 direct jobs in Pakistan.”
Sharif said that “at present, the world is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. President Xi Jinping has reviewed the situation and proposed a GDI and GSI. Over the past 10 years, China has participated in global governance with unprecedented breadth, depth and intensity, firmly standing on the right side of history and the side of the progress of human civilisation, providing Chinese wisdom, Chinese solutions, and Chinese strength to solve common problems facing mankind.” 夏巴兹表示，当前，世界百年未有之大变局加速演进。习近平主席审时度势，提出全球发展倡议和全球安全倡议。10年来，中国以前所未有的广度、深度、力度参与全球治理，坚定站在历史正确的一边、站在人类文明进步的一边，为解决人类面临的共同问题提供中国智慧、中国方案、中国力量.
He later adds that “Pakistan is willing to work with China to promote the development of the global governance system in a more just and reasonable direction.”
On the page, we also have the full joint communique after the SCO Heads of Government meeting. The English version is available here. Also on the page, is the full China-Vietnam joint statement. Here’s an English translation of that statement.
“The two sides assess that the world situation is going through historical, profound and unpredictable changes and entering a new period of upheavals. The two Parties and countries need to persistently pursue their goals, ideals and missions of striving for people's happiness and human progress; persistently view and develop the bilateral relations from a strategic perspective with a long-term vision; uphold the motto of ‘friendly neighbourliness, comprehensive cooperation, long-term stability and future-oriented thinking’ and the spirit of ‘good neighbours, good friends, good comrades, good partners’, and promote the long-term, healthy and stable development of the Vietnam-China comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership in the new era.
To that goal, the two sides need to enhance strategic exchanges and political trust, persist with equality and mutual respect, firmly grasp the right direction ahead of the Vietnam-China relations; deepen mutually beneficial cooperation, promote harmony of interests, thus contributing to bringing happiness to people and improving their living standards; promote the tradition of friendship, strengthen exchanges between the two peoples, especially organising meetings and deepening understanding and bonds between young generations; properly handle disagreements on the basis of mutual understanding and respect, preserve the Vietnam-China relations and peace and stability in the region, and create a good external environment for the development of both countries; strengthen coordination on international issues, join hands in responding to regional and global challenges, contribute positively to maintaining peace, and promote common development in the region and the world.”
Also this chunk is interesting:
“Defence cooperation is one of the pillars of the bilateral relationship. The two countries will further increase high-level meetings between their armies; conduct exchanges and cooperation activities such as the Border Defence Friendship Exchange, the Defence Strategic Dialogue, joint patrols in the Gulf of Tonkin between naval forces, and a hotline between the two defence ministries; deepen border guard cooperation, and promote joint land border patrols by border guards of the two countries. The two sides will step up high-level exchanges between their law enforcement agencies, deepen cooperation in political security and law enforcement in various fields; closely coordinate in multilateral security issues. They will bring into full play such mechanisms as the Ministerial Conference on Crime Prevention and Control and the Deputy Ministerial Strategic Security Dialogue, promote cooperation in the fight against terrorism, ‘peaceful evolution’, ‘colour revolution’, drug crime, cybercrime, cross-border gambling, human trafficking and high-tech crime as well as in immigration management and tracing wanted criminals. The two sides will accelerate the negotiation and signing of a Vietnam-China agreement on the transfer of sentenced persons, a Vietnam-China agreement on cooperation in crime prevention and control, and a plan on cooperation in illegal immigration prevention and control between the Vietnamese Ministry of Public Security and the Chinese National Immigration Administration. The two sides agree to continue consolidating and enhancing legal and judicial cooperation in order to create a legal basis to boost their comprehensive cooperation in all fields. They will work together to deepen collaboration in law enforcement at sea between their coast guards, properly handle emerging incidents at sea and maintain security and stability at sea.”
After this, there is a lot in there about economic cooperation, bilateral trade, pandemic-related cooperation, fishery cooperation, meteorological and hydrological data sharing, etc. For instance: “The two sides agree to push for early negotiations for the signing of a new agreement on fishery cooperation in the Gulf of Tonkin; reach consensus on an agreement on search and rescue at sea and another on establishing a hotline on incidents in Vietnam-China fishing activities at sea, and agree to early sign those agreements.”
The statement also mentions GDI and GSI, and it’s interesting to note that Vietnam’s approach is different for each of them.
On GDI, it says that “the two sides agree to continue following and implementing common perceptions of high-ranking leaders and the Global Development Initiative, actively research more cooperative projects to stimulate the economy and benefit people’s life.”
On GSI, it says that “Vietnam recognises China's Global Security Initiative on the basis of the goals and principles of the UN Charter. Vietnam is willing to work with China and concerned partners to maintain long-term peace and security in the world. The two sides agree to step up cooperation within the framework of the UN, maintain exchanges and closely coordinate in international and regional issues of shared concern.”
On the South China Sea issue, the document says:
“They agree to continue to promote the full and effective implementation of the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the East Sea (DOC), and on the basis of consultation, consensus, soon reach a substantive and effective Code of Conduct in the East Sea (COC) in accordance with international law, including the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); well control disagreements at sea, without actions that complicate the situation and expand disputes; and maintain peace, stability in the East Sea and promote cooperation at sea.”
Next, there’s a report on Wang Yi’s chat with French Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Catherine Colonna. They discussed the war in Ukraine along with other issues. But the report basically has Wang telling Colonna that “China maintains continuity and stability in its policy towards France and Europe, and stands ready to continue to push forward the China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership and deepen strategic coordination and cooperation between China and France. He said China and France should jointly plan and design high-level exchanges and cooperation in various fields between the two countries, so as to open up new prospects for bilateral relations.”
Page 3: There’s a long article by new PBSC member Ding Xuexiang.
My brief take: This is a rather remarkable article in how blunt it is. Ding does not mince his words when it comes to the challenges that lie ahead. He is clear that China’s development faces tremendous turbulence down the road. Achieving the goals that have been outlined by the leadership, he argues, will not be a walk in the park. Then he calls for strict political alignment with Xi Jinping politically but also on all matters of policy. He signals that everyone must fall in line and any deviation from the central line is going to entail high political cost. The final section of the article is particularly interesting in that Ding exhorts cadres and officials to take the tough actions that are needed for reform but also be firm and assertive. Abandon timidity, passiveness and slackness, he says. For anyone believing that Xi’s complete consolidation of power after the 20th Party Congress will lead to a readjustment in foreign policy, this should disabuse them of that notion.
Ding begins by talking about the “values of unity and struggle” being deeply ingrained into the worldview and behaviour of the Chinese people.
“In the long history of thousands of years, the Chinese people have built a unified multi-ethnic country through unity and struggle, developed vast and magnificent rivers and mountains, and defeated countless natural disasters. In modern times, in the face of the humiliation of the country, the suffering of the people and the devastation of civilisation, the Chinese people fought resolutely against internal troubles and external aggression through unity and struggle, defended their national independence and dignity, and wrote magnificent epics of striving for innovation and resisting foreign aggression together.” 在几千年历史长河中，中国人民依靠团结奋斗建立了统一的多民族国家，开发了辽阔壮美的大好河山，战胜了数不清的自然灾害。近代以后，面对国家蒙辱、人民蒙难、文明蒙尘的劫难，中国人民依靠团结奋斗同内忧外患作坚决斗争，捍卫了民族独立和尊严，书写了革新图强、共御外侮的壮丽史诗.
He adds that the CCP has “inherited and carried forward the fine tradition of unity and struggle.” He adds that “looking at the past and present, at home and abroad, our Party is the most advanced political force that is united and capable of struggle; this is determined by the nature and purpose of a Marxist party. Our party takes the realisation of communism as the highest ideal, and takes the pursuit of happiness for the Chinese people and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as its original mission. This lofty ambition gives the Chinese communists a strong driving force to unite as one and work hard. Our Party’s fundamental purpose is to serve the people wholeheartedly, representing the fundamental interests of the vast majority of the Chinese people; it has no special interests of its own, and has never represented the interests of any interest group, any powerful group, or any privileged class. This selfless spirit and character make our Party has ensured that it has received the heartfelt and firm support of the people.” 综观古今中外，我们党是最讲团结、最能奋斗的最先进政治力量，这是由马克思主义政党的性质和宗旨决定的。我们党把实现共产主义作为最高理想，把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴作为初心使命，这种远大志向和抱负赋予共产党人团结一心、顽强拼搏的强大动力。我们党以全心全意为人民服务为根本宗旨，代表中国最广大人民的根本利益，没有任何自己的特殊利益，从来不代表任何利益集团、任何权势团体、任何特权阶层的利益，这种无私精神和品格使我们党一直得到人民群众的衷心拥护和坚定支持.
The second section of the article emphasises the need for hard work. “The realisation of the goal of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has entered an irreversible historical process. This grand goal will not be easily achieved, and the road ahead is bound to be full of trials and tribulations.” 实现中华民族伟大复兴进入了不可逆转的历史进程. 宏伟目标不会轻松实现，前进道路必然风雨兼程...
He warns that the closer one is going to get to the goal, the more challenging things will get, and cautions against complacency, becoming war weary or slackening behaviour, which can “affect our cause, and even lead to the failure of our cause.” 但要清醒地看到，“行百里者半九十”，越是接近目标，就越是处于吃劲阶段，越需要慎终如始，付出更多艰辛和努力。任何骄傲自满的情绪、麻痹厌战的想法、松劲懈怠的行为，都有可能影响我们的事业继续前进，甚至导致功败垂成、前功尽弃。只有咬定青山不放松，始终保持团结的状态、奋进的姿态，才能跑出属于我们这一代人的好成绩.
He then says:
“The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has taken the path of Chinese-style modernisation. Chinese-style modernisation is a modernisation with a huge population, the common prosperity of all people, the coordination of material civilisation and spiritual civilisation, the harmonious coexistence of man and nature, and the modernisation of peaceful development. This is essentially different from the modernisation of Western countries, which has been capital-centred modernisation, polarised modernisation, a modernisation of materialist expansion and external expansion and modernisation based on plunder. As the most grand and unique practical innovation in human history, Chinese-style modernisation has accumulated rich experience and established a basic understanding. However, there are still a lot of reform problems, development issues and contradictions to be addressed. The task is extremely arduous and the difficulties we face are rare in the world. Only under the leadership of the Communist Party can the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of more than 1.4 billion Chinese people be fully stimulated and condensed, and the grand blueprint for national rejuvenation can be turned into a beautiful reality one step at a time.” 任务的艰巨性要求我们持续团结奋斗。中华民族伟大复兴走的是中国式现代化道路。中国式现代化是人口规模巨大的现代化，是全体人民共同富裕的现代化，是物质文明和精神文明相协调的现代化，是人与自然和谐共生的现代化，是走和平发展道路的现代化。这与西方国家以资本为中心的现代化、两极分化的现代化、物质主义膨胀的现代化、对外扩张掠夺的现代化有着本质区别。中国式现代化作为人类历史上最为宏大而独特的实践创新，已经积累了丰富经验、形成了规律性认识，但仍有大量改革难题、发展课题、矛盾问题需要破解，任务极其艰巨，难度世所罕见。只有在党的领导下把14亿多中国人民的积极性、主动性、创造性充分激发出来、凝聚起来，民族复兴的宏伟蓝图才能一步步变成美好现实.
He then again has a warning. Ding writes that the great cause of rejuvenation that we want to create today is not one where we will achieve instant success amid a still breeze and quiet waves and neither is it one where we will enjoy applause and flowers. On the way forward, we will inevitably encounter various foreseeable and unpredictable risks, challenges and even stormy waves. 形势的复杂性要求我们持续团结奋斗。我们今天所要创造的复兴伟业，不是在风平浪静下的马到成功，不是在鲜花掌声中的乐享其成，前进道路上必然会遇到各种可以预见和难以预见的风险挑战甚至是惊涛骇浪.
“From the international perspective, the world is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. The epidemic has far-reaching impacts, the global economic recovery is sluggish, various traditional and non-traditional security issues are intertwined, threats such as unilateralism, protectionism, and hegemonism have intensified, and and hostile forces are trying their best to obstruct the historical process of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. From the domestic perspective, the situation and environment are changing rapidly, there are many contradictions, risks and challenges, and the tests of governance and administration are unprecedented. Only by condensing the wisdom and strength of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups, accurately recognising changes, responding scientifically, actively seeking changes, and building an iron wall to prevent and resolve various risks and challenges with solidarity and struggle, can we win all kinds of encounters, tough battles, and protracted wars.” 从国际看，世界百年未有之大变局加速演进，世纪疫情影响深远，全球经济复苏乏力，各种传统和非传统安全问题相互交织，单边主义、保护主义、霸权主义等威胁加剧，敌对势力处心积虑阻滞中华民族伟大复兴的历史进程。从国内看，形势环境变化之快、矛盾风险挑战之多、治国理政考验之大前所未有。只有凝聚全党全国各族人民的智慧和力量，准确识变、科学应变、主动求变，用团结奋斗筑起防范化解各种风险挑战的铜墙铁壁，才能打赢各类遭遇战、攻坚战、持久战.
After outlining these grave challenges, Ding offers a method/pathway to ensure unity and deal with all this. No prizes for guessing what this is: “The root of unity and struggle lies in unifying will and action with Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era” 团结奋斗根本在于用习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想统一意志和行动.
He argues that thought is the forerunner of action, and theory is the guide of practice. Scientific theory is like a banner, which once erected offers clarity on the goal and direction for unity and struggle. Without this, one is like a ship without a navigator, wandering lost in the vast sea. 思想是行动的先导，理论是实践的指南。科学理论就像一面旗帜，旗帜立起来了，团结奋斗才有目标和方向；否则，就如同一艘航船没有导航仪，很容易迷失在茫茫大海中.
He adds that “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era has answered the fundamental question of what banner to hold and what path to take in the new era; it has put forward a series of major conclusions that are contemporary, creative, and strategic. It has a clear-cut stand on what to stand for and what to oppose, which embodies the political will, political position and political proposition of our Party, and fully demonstrates the truth power of contemporary China Marxism and 21st century Marxism.” 习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想回答了新时代举什么旗、走什么路的根本性问题，提出了一系列富有时代性、创造性、战略性的重大论断，在坚持什么、反对什么上旗帜鲜明、正本清源，集中体现了我们党的政治意志、政治立场、政治主张，充分彰显了当代中国马克思主义、二十一世纪马克思主义的真理力量.
He says that with Xi’s thought, the entire Party and people of all ethnic groups will have a “fundamental guideline for their thoughts and actions, and the unity and struggle will have an ideological foundation and a correct direction. It is necessary to profoundly understand the core essence, rich connotation and practical requirements of this important thought, so as to arm the mind and educate the people, firmly establish the belief in Marxism, communism and Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and confidence in the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and then consolidate the common ideological foundation of unity and struggle. When it comes to major issues of principle, such as the banner, the path, the direction, one must be particularly bright-eyed, the mind should be particularly clear, and the position should be particularly firm. There must be no ambiguity, hesitation, or vacillation.” 有了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想这一旗帜，全党全国各族人民思想上行动上就有了根本遵循，团结奋斗就有了思想根基和正确方向。要深刻领会这一重要思想的核心要义、丰富内涵、实践要求，用以武装头脑、教育人民，牢固树立对马克思主义的信仰、对共产主义和中国特色社会主义的信念、对中华民族伟大复兴的信心，进而巩固团结奋斗的共同思想基础。在涉及旗帜、道路、方向等重大原则问题上，眼睛要特别明亮，头脑要特别清醒，立场要特别坚定，绝不能有丝毫含糊、犹疑、动摇.
Quick note:" The next bit is really important. It’s quite a significant statement emphasising that Xi’s thought outlines not just the goals but also the pathways towards achieving that goal. What this implies is that the room for policy experimentation is only likely to further shrink for Chinese officials and cadres at different levels.
“Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era adheres to the combination of theory and practice, the integration of strategy and tactics and the unity of world outlook and methodology; it discusses how to view and how to act. It not only outlines the task of ‘crossing the river’ but also offers guidance on resolving the ‘bridge or boat’ question. In doing so, it provides a powerful ideological weapon for the Party to lead the people to unite and struggle, and also provides scientific work guidance.” 习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想坚持理论和实践相结合、战略和战术相贯通、世界观和方法论相统一，既讲怎么看又讲怎么干，既部署“过河”的任务又指导解决“桥或船”的问题，为党领导人民团结奋斗提供了强大的思想武器，也提供了科学的工作指导.
Section four of the article talks about consolidating unity. He says that historical experience has proven that as long as the Party maintains unity, “we can be invincible and overcome all difficulties and obstacles and powerful enemies; otherwise, the cause of the party and the country will suffer setbacks.” 历史经验反复证明，只要全党步调一致、团结统一，我们就能无坚不摧，战胜一切艰难险阻和强大敌人；反之，党和国家事业就会遭受挫折.
In this, Ding emphasises political unity first and foremost. He says that “we must deeply understand the decisive significance of the Two Establishments more firmly and consciously achieve the two safeguards, and always maintain a high degree of consistency with the Party Central Committee with comrade Xi Jinping at the core in terms of the political position, political direction, political principles and political path. In order to achieve the two safeguards, we must have a correct understanding and take correct actions, and must not shout slogans or engage in any form of ‘low-level red’ (低级红) and ‘high-level black’ (高级黑’) — 党的团结统一首先是政治上的团结统一。要深刻领悟“两个确立”的决定性意义，更加坚定自觉地做到“两个维护”，始终在政治立场、政治方向、政治原则、政治道路上同以同志为核心的党中央保持高度一致。做到“两个维护”，既要有正确的认识，也要有正确的行动，不能空喊口号，不能搞任何形式的“低级红”、“高级黑”. You can find an explanation of what these two phrases mean in this post from August 2021.
He further says that “we must earnestly implement democratic centralism, strictly observe the Party's political discipline and rules, prevent and oppose individualism, de-centralism, liberalism, selfish-departmentalism, and good-guy doctrine/ideology, and resolutely fight against all actions that undermine the Party’s unity, and cherish the Party’s unity…” 要认真贯彻执行民主集中制，严格遵守党的政治纪律和政治规矩，防止和反对个人主义、分散主义、自由主义、本位主义、好人主义，坚决同损害党的团结统一的行为作斗争，像爱护眼睛一样爱护党的团结统一。
Second, he says that in order to enhance unity, “we need to put people-centred development philosophy into practice, ensure that the fruits of reform and development benefit all our people in a more equitable manner, and make more tangible progress in achieving common prosperity, so that our people’s sense of gain, happiness and security be more fulfilled, secure and sustainable.” 要践行以人民为中心的发展思想，推动改革发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民，推动共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展，让人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感更加充实、更有保障、更可持续.
After this, he talks about improving “whole-process democracy,” improving work style to enhance flesh and blood ties with the people, and consolidating and strengthening the unity of Chinese sons and daughters at home and abroad. “Establishing the broadest united front is an important magic weapon for our party to overcome the enemy and win, and it is also an important magic weapon for the party to govern and rejuvenate the country.”
He adds: “At present, China’s internal and external environment have undergone profound changes, with the presence of more diverse forms of ownership, more diverse social classes and more diverse social perspectives. The more diverse our interests and perspectives are, the more we should gather ideological consensus…” 当前，我国发展内外环境发生深刻变化，所有制形式更加多样，社会阶层更加多样，社会思想观念更加多样。越是利益多元、思想多样，越要凝聚思想共识、汇聚强大力量.
In the final section, Ding adds that the Party’s path of struggle is full of hardships. We must rely on struggle to inspire ambition, courage, and pride, and continue to overcome various difficulties and challenges until the final victory is achieved. 党的奋斗之路充满艰辛，必须依靠斗争激发志气、胆气、豪气，不断战胜各种困难挑战直至取得最后胜利，没有斗争的奋斗是空洞的、无力的.
He adds: “We must gnaw the hard bones when it comes to dealing with all kinds of difficulties and contradictions in economic and social development, dare to speak up against wrong words and deeds concerning political principles, dare to scrape the bones to heal the poison against all kinds of unhealthy trends and negative tendencies in the Party, and be resolute and brave to fight and prevail against all acts by hostile forces that smear the image of the Party and the country and harm the interests of the country and the people. Chinese Communists in the new era should abandon all timidity, all passiveness and slackness, and move ahead with prudence, always maintain the courageous spirit of the brave one who encounters the narrow road and wins, and moves forward with a fearless spirit despite the difficulties. Walking around/avoiding contradictions and problems, backing down in the face of difficulties and challenges, and falling flat in the face of failures and setbacks are traits that do not meet the requirements of the Chinese communists and nor can these individuals shoulder their historical responsibilities.” 对经济社会发展中的各种困难矛盾要敢于啃硬骨头，对事关政治原则的错误言行要敢于发声亮剑，对党内各种不正之风和消极腐败现象要敢于刮骨疗毒，对敌对势力抹黑党和国家形象、损害国家和人民利益的各种行径要毫不手软、敢战能胜。新时代的共产党人，应当摒弃一切畏首畏尾、一切消极懈怠、一切瞻前顾后，始终保持狭路相逢勇者胜、越是艰险越向前的大无畏气概。遇到矛盾问题绕着走，遇到困难挑战打退堂鼓，遇到失败挫折一蹶不振，不符合共产党人的要求，也是担当不起历史重任的.
Towards the end, he says that in order to address ideological problems, the method to follow is “unity-criticism-unity” 团结—批评—团结, and adopt the methods of discussion, criticism and reasoning to achieve new unity on a new basis. He also warns that “the ability to struggle is not innate. Party members and cadres must undergo strict ideological tempering, political experience, practical training, and professional training” to achieve this. 斗争本领不是与生俱来的，党员、干部要经受严格的思想淬炼、政治历练、实践锻炼、专业训练...
Page 9: I am not doing a breakdown, but if you are interested, there are academic articles on Chinese-style modernisation.
Page 10: There’s an interesting article talking about how China is going to continue to feel the pressure of job creation going forward. It calls for the policy approach to be one of “promoting employment through growth and stabilising growth through employment.”
With a population of more than 1.4 billion and a workforce of about 900 million, addressing employment issues has always been an important task for China's economic and social development. At present and in the future, the pressure of total employment will continue to persist, and the structural employment contradiction is going to be more prominent. Development is the key to solving the problems. Only by constantly increasing the driving force of economic growth on employment can we create a sound interaction of ‘promoting employment through growth and stabilising growth through employment’; only by combining the decisive role of the market in resource allocation with the strengthening of government responsibility, can we use the power of ‘two hands’ in a coordinated manner to effectively solve the employment problem.” 我国有14亿多人口、约9亿劳动力，解决好就业问题，始终是经济社会发展的一项重大任务。当前和今后一个时期，我国就业总量压力依然存在，结构性就业矛盾更为凸显。发展是解决问题的钥匙。只有不断提高经济增长对就业的带动力，才能形成“以增长促就业、以就业稳增长”的良性互动；只有把发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用和强化政府责任有机结合起来，才能协调运用“两只手”的力量有效破解就业难题.