PLA's Talent Work under Xi - Yang Jiechi on Post-6th Plenum Foreign Policy - Li attends SCO & ASEM Meetings - China's Development Offers Others a Path - Why 'The Battle at Lake Changjin' Succeeded
Here are the stories and pieces from the November 26, 2021, edition of the People’s Daily that I found noteworthy.
Page 1: Let’s begin with a long, long piece about reviewing talent development in the PLA under Xi. I found this quite difficult to summarise. So I’ve done the best I could. But I thought that this is a great first resource compiling key data points and a list of regulations to look at. Some of these I’ve highlighted below. It would be great to read some quality research on all of this, if you can point me to articles that I should read.
Anyway, the piece begins by offering a few milestones in the evolution of policy, without really offering significant details. These are:
Xi’s visit to NUDT in November 2013, where he proposed the concept of strengthening the armed forces through talent development
The November 2014 meeting in Gutian, which focussed on political work of the PLA. The piece says that this meeting established the 四有 - “four haves” for the talents. If you’ve forgotten what this was about, this old note by James Mulvenon is a good resource to go through.
The military reforms that were initiated in November 2015. One aspect of this focussed on the development, management and use of military human resources and promoting institutional reform and policy innovation in personnel development.
Finally, the 19th Party Congress, where Xi outlined the “overall design for comprehensively advancing the modernisation of national defense and the armed forces.”
Since the 18th Party Congress, President Xi Jinping has led the PLA to revitalise the political discipline of the Party’s management of talents, set a clear direction for military education, optimised the structure and layout of personnel teams, innovated human resources policies and systems, and promoted historic achievements and changes in military personnel work. This work has been guided by the banner of always maintaining the correct political orientation of military personnel work. 党的十八大以来，习主席领导人民军队重振党管人才政治纲纪，立起为战育人鲜明导向，优化人员队伍结构布局，创新人力资源政策制度，推动我军人才工作取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革。坚持旗帜引领，始终保持我军人才工作正确政治方向.
The development of national defense and the armed forces has entered a new era, the new world military revolution is gathering pace, intelligent warfare is taking shape, and the international situation is complex and volatile. 国防和军队建设进入新时代，世界新军事革命加速发展，智能化战争初露端倪，国际形势复杂多变. Amid this, the work with regard to talents has reached a new starting point.
The piece then says that amid the reforms that Xi initiated, over time and with a lot of studying Xi’s comments, it has increasingly become clear for military academies “who to train, how to train and for whom to train.” Another example given is that the establishment of theatre commands required Party committees to adapt. They “identified gaps and strengthened weak spots.” -- This is as vague as one can get.
I guess the aim is not to offer details but rather to make this point: “The development and progress of our military personnel work since the 18th Party Congress lies in the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and President Xi, and in the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping’s thought on strengthening the military.” 党的十八大以来我军人才工作的发展进步，根本在于党中央、中央军委和习主席的坚强领导，在于习近平强军思想的科学指引.
The next bit in the piece talks about new ideas and practices. This discusses how the CMC has conducted centralised evaluations of leading bodies at and above the military level and of cadres at and above the division level. It says that the supplementary system of officer selection has been redrawn. There is a reliance on local colleges and universities to train non-commissioned officers. There is an effort to induct professionals and high-level talents, particularly those with understanding of technology. There’s a greater balance between the supply and demand for such high-quality talents. The use of talents has also shifted from “extensive to refined.”
The next bit talks about steps taken to boost morale and motivation for soldiers to take on new responsibilities. These responsibilities first and foremost relate to strengthening political responsibility and then an adherence to a problem-oriented approach. Specifically, the piece highlights the Implementing Opinion on Further Motivating All-Military Cadres to Assume New Responsibilities and Attain New Achievements in the New Era, which basically provided amnesty for folks making unintentional mistakes or violating rules unintentionally. The piece adds that the effort has been towards encouraging those who are committed and those who are enterprising to take initiative. The subsequent paragraphs tell us that along with this, welfare measures have been adopted, such as those related to medical security for soldiers and their families and allowances and subsidies related to military spouses.
The next bit talks about political discipline and the principle of the Party controlling the gun. Under the 四有 framework, the first basic requirement for outstanding officers is loyalty to the Party, the first basic requirement for outstanding soldiers is firm conviction and obedience to the Party’s command, and the first basic requirement for outstanding civilian personnel is political qualification. “四有”优秀军官基本条件第一条是对党忠诚，“四有”优秀士兵基本条件第一条是信念坚定、听党指挥，“四有”优秀文职人员基本条件第一条是政治合格.
So while the goal is to cultivate soldiers who have “soul, ability, courage and moral character” and the standards set for good military cadres emphasise loyalty to the Party, combat effectiveness, ability to assume responsibility, the will to make outstanding achievements, and honesty and integrity, the political standard always ranks first. 培养有灵魂、有本事、有血性、有品德的新时代革命军人，鲜明确立对党忠诚、善谋打仗、敢于担当、实绩突出、清正廉洁的军队好干部标准……政治标准始终居于人才标准首位，昭示了我军人才永远是党的人才.
The new assessment of officers has been adjusted to include five aspects: political quality, professional ability, commitment, achievements in work, and honesty and self-discipline. 新的军官考核内容调整为政治品质、专业能力、担当精神、工作实绩、廉洁自律5个方面，突出政治标准，注重从政治上考察识别军官，确保选出来的军官绝对忠诚可靠、堪当强军重任.
The next section talks about strict organisational control. It references three regulations:
These, it says, have clarified the rights and responsibilities of party committees, leaders and political organs in selecting and employing people, and built an operating mechanism that is both reasonable and coordinated. 近年来，全军贯彻《中国共产党军队党的建设条例》《军队政治工作条例》《中国共产党军队委员会（支部）工作规定》，厘清党委、领导和政治机关在选人用人中的权责，构建既合理分工又相互协调的运行机制.
I thought this was a useful conclusion to note when it comes to personnel movement. “The audit and verification system has been tightened. During the promotion and appointment of officers, strict measures have been taken to check reports on personal matters, review archival materials, assess their health status, and listen to the opinions of disciplinary inspection and supervision departments and military procuratorial departments. Officials who fail to report or conceal personal matters have been dealt with seriously. The revival of political discipline has brought gratifying changes: The selection and appointment of personnel are moving toward the goal of the organisation being assured, the people being satisfied, and the officers and soldiers being much more convinced. 审核制度更加严格，军官晋升任用过程中严格落实个人有关事项报告查核、档案材料审查、健康状况评估和听取纪检监察、军事检察部门意见等，个人有关事项漏报瞒报的干部被严肃处理。坚持党管人才、组织选人，政治纲纪的重振带来可喜变化：选人用人正在向组织放心、群众满意、官兵服气的目标迈进.
The next section talks about steps taken to purify the political ecology. It says that “all levels continue to thoroughly eliminate the influence of Guo Boxiong, Xu Caihou, Fang Fenghui and Zhang Yang, and persist in fighting both tigers and flies.” The army’s cadre team has taken on a new look. The piece says that after the Gutian meeting, a large-scale inspection was carried out and “officials who were promoted illegally were severely punished.” It adds that over time, the CMC has “introduced systems and regulations on supervision of the selection and appointment of officials, officials’ avoidance of posts, and management of leading cadres’ secretaries and public servants. The rules are binding, and one cannot use power arbitrarily.” 中央军委密集出台选人用人工作监督、干部任职回避、领导干部秘书和公勤人员管理等制度规定。条条铁律约束，用权不能任性. The piece says that over time, the scientificity, accuracy and credibility of selecting and employing people have been continuously enhanced.
The next section talks about combat effectiveness and preparing for war. This covers changes to military education. The piece says that in this context, the Blue Army is becoming more and more professional, and the training environment is becoming more and more realistic. In this regard, the piece mentions four regulations/guidelines.
These have transformed the PLA’s training approach and systems. The section following this discusses the importance of joint operations and efforts to boost that ability, the induction of talents skilled in science and technology and strategic planning. The piece later says that all PLA units have included combat criteria as part of their evaluation; cadres who have been tempered by major combat training tasks are given priority.
This little nugget was interesting: At the beginning of 2018, the CMC launched a special supervision campaign to monitor PLA training. Some officers were suspended from promotion for failing to meet the overall performance standards, and some officers and soldiers were held accountable for their inaccurate conduct in the training evaluation.
Some regulations mentioned are:
Later, we get some recruitment data:
College recruits account for more than 80 percent of new recruits.
Outstanding civil servants have been recruited to fill the ranks. Since 2018, 36,000 civil servants have been recruited, 30 percent of whom hold Master’s level degrees or above.
The number of CMC organs and departments has been cut by a third, the number of military units and institutions above regiment level has been reduced by more than 1,000, and the number of active personnel in support agencies has been cut by nearly half.
The PLA is becoming leaner in size, better structured and more scientifically organised, and the building of a system of joint combat forces with elite combat forces as the main body is accelerating. 持续加大大学生新兵补充力度，入伍新兵中大学生占比达80%以上。广泛延揽社会优秀人才充实文职人员队伍，2018年至今已面向社会招录补充3.6万名，其中硕士研究生以上学历的占30%。数据显示，军委机关部门人员精简1/3，全军团以上建制单位机关减少千余个，保障机构现役员额压减近一半……人民军队规模更加精干、结构更加优化、编成更加科学，以精锐作战力量为主体的联合作战力量体系正加速构建.
Next, we have a report on Li Keqiang attending the ASEM summit. I am looking at Li’s speech to summarise the key points:
“We need to safeguard the international system with the United Nations at its core, the international order underpinned by international law, and the basic norms of international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. China will work with all parties to jointly practice multilateralism with a broader global perspective, a sense of longer-term historical mission and a keener awareness of international responsibility.”
On the pandemic: “Countries need to uphold the spirit of science, follow its laws and step up cooperation on the research, development, production and technology transfer of vaccines and drugs.”
He talked about coordination on green growth, macroeconomic policies and related to the multilateral trading system with WTO at its core. I also thought this was perhaps a message to Li’s domestic audience: “As the world’s largest developing country, China needs to make painstaking efforts to realize low-carbon development and a green transition in the course of modernization.”
China calls on all parties to keep up this good momentum, carry on the spirit of openness, inclusiveness and win-win cooperation, pursue integrated and interconnected development in keeping with the trend of the world economy, further synergize our development initiatives, and make sure that ‘hardware connectivity’ in infrastructure and ‘software connectivity’ in institutions and rules shall complement and reinforce each other.
“We need to strengthen exchanges in education, culture, tourism, sports and between think tanks and media organizations, and develop an all-dimensional, deep-going and multi-channel cooperation framework, to enhance the affinity between our peoples. China is making all-round preparations for the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics and your active participation is most welcome. I wish to take this opportunity to announce that China will donate 10 million US dollars to the Asia-Europe Foundation over a 10-year period starting from 2022 to support our cooperation in various areas. China will hold an event for exchanges and cooperation on Smart Customs, Smart Borders and Smart Connectivity to promote regional trade facilitation and connectivity.”
Next, we have a report on the new State Council guidelines for pilot programs to innovate the business environment in select cities. A report on this was published in September, but the detailed guidelines have been made public yesterday. There are six pilot cities for this work: Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Hangzhou, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. My breakdown of the report in September is here.
Finally, there’s a commentary about Wang Jie’s spirit. Wang was a PLA soldier who was killed while trying to save his comrades from a misplaced land mine during a drill in Xuzhou city, Jiangsu Province, in July 1965. The commentary informs us that Xi has spoken in the past of how Wang was a childhood hero for Xi. So basically, follow the spirit. Don’t be afraid of hardship, challenges and even death. Forge ahead and take responsibility.
Page 2: We have a report about Li Keqiang’s participation and comments at the SCO Council of Heads of Government meeting. I am looking at Li’s full speech:
“Regional countries now face multiple challenges in resolving hotspot issues, addressing the convergence of terrorism and drug-related crimes, and protecting cyber security. We need to consolidate the basis of our law enforcement and security cooperation, and jointly prevent the spillovers of security issues.”
“We need to well harness the SCO program of alerts about major epidemic emergency caused by infectious diseases, enhance cooperation on the research and development of vaccines and medicines, and improve the mechanism of joint epidemic response. We need to enhance policy and technical exchanges on pandemic containment, and explore new cooperation formats in digital healthcare, telemedicine, basic health services and personnel training, to raise our ability in response to public health crisis. We will continue vaccine cooperation with other SCO members by donating, exporting and promoting joint production of vaccines, to promote vaccine accessibility and affordability in countries of the region.” He also talked about China setting up TCM centers in SCO states.
He talked about upholding the multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core, improving the trade and investment environment, enhancing “energy policy coordination,” enhancing “the development and use of renewable energy,” and keeping “energy supply stable and secure in the region.” China’s trade with SCO countries is “$395 billion.” He wants to do more, particularly boost e-commerce.
“We need to fully implement the Agreement on International Road Transportation Facilitation, expedite the development of international multi-modal logistics centers, and better harness the existing ‘fast tracks’ and ‘green lanes’, to keep regional logistics and supply chains stable and smooth. We need to open diversified financing channels, continue to explore viable approaches to the setting-up of an SCO development bank, and increase the share of local currency payment in the mutual settlements between SCO members, to provide strong financial support to infrastructure connectivity.”
“China proposes establishing an SCO information sharing system for multilateral coordination on emergency response and university alliances in medicine, law and agriculture on a voluntary basis, to further broaden and deepen our cooperation on sustainable development.”
Also on the page is the full joint communique from the SCO meeting. Xinhua English has a report on this. It says that “in a joint communique issued after the 20th Meeting of the Council of Heads of Government of SCO Member States on Thursday, the SCO delegation heads underscored the urgency to advocate building of a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation, and forging a common vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind.”
“The SCO member states will further promote policy coordination, security cooperation, unimpeded trade, financial integration and closer people-to-people bonds in a joint effort to build a peaceful, secure, prosperous and clean world, they noted. More work is needed to bolster SCO multilateral economic and trade cooperation, and the bloc plans to strengthen cooperation in finance, trade, investment, industry, transportation, energy, agriculture and the digital economy. The SCO member states consider it important to further improve the global economic governance system and will continue to consolidate an open, transparent, just, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system based on the principles and rules of the World Trade Organization, they reaffirmed.”
Just a note on the Indian External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar’s comments at the SCO meeting. He said:
“The socio-political impact of COVID-19 is far from over and has exposed the weakness of global institutions. This is the time to bring in much needed reforms to our global institutions, including the WHO, and rework our development strategies to face a post-COVID-19 world. For this, we need a Reformed and Reinvigorated Multilateralism that reflects today's realities, which gives voice to all stakeholders, addresses contemporary challenges and puts human beings at the centre of our thought and policies.”
“India believes that greater connectivity is an economic force-multiplier which has acquired greater salience in the post-Covid era. However, any serious connectivity initiative must be consultative, transparent and participatory. It must conform to the most basic principle of international law – respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity.”
India considers the SCO as an important regional group to promote cooperation in various fields based on universally recognized international norms, good governance, Rule of law, openness, transparency and equality. It is unfortunate to note that there have been repeated attempts to deliberately bring bilateral issues into SCO. This violates the well-established principles and norms of SCO Charter. Such acts are counterproductive to the spirit of consensus and cooperation that define this organization.
Page 3: First, a report (English report) about Hu Chunhua speaking to Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Chernyshenko. The report is incredibly bland. Here’s what it says:
“Thanks to the joint efforts of both sides, bilateral cooperation in trade, investment, agriculture and other fields has achieved fruitful results, which reflects the comprehensive, high level China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era, Hu said. China stands ready to work with Russia to earnestly implement the consensus reached by the leaders of the two countries, consolidate the good momentum of trade and investment cooperation, properly solve new situations and new problems through cooperation, focus on expanding cooperation in emerging sectors, strengthen communication and cooperation in international economic affairs, promote new progress on China-Russia cooperation, and make relevant preparations for the meeting between leaders of the two countries.”
Second, a report (English report) about Yang Jiechi meeting with Jang Ha-sung, ambassador of the Republic of Korea. They talked about the North Korean issue. The report says:
“Yang called on the two countries to take the opportunity of the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and ROK in 2022 to enhance high-level exchanges and strategic communication, and expand cooperation and exchanges across the board to promote the greater development of bilateral relations. Jang Ha-sung said the ROK side attaches great importance to relations with China and stands ready to work with China to positively prepare for the celebrations of the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries next year.”
Third, Wang Yi’s meeting (English report) with UNGA President Abdulla Shahid. The report says:
“Wang said the UN should help maintain fairness and justice, rather than being an onlooker of hegemonism and bullying. The UN should be a major platform of multilateralism, instead of a battling field for major power games. The UN should take actions to respond to challenges, rather than sitting idly by and doing nothing. For his part, Shahid congratulated China on the 50th anniversary of the restoration of its lawful seat at the UN, adding this session of the UNGA is ready to enhance coordination with China to jointly maintain fairness and justice, practice multilateralism, respond to global challenges, and help safeguard the UN's authority and credibility.”
Fourth, a commentary on the page with the headline basically saying that China’s development path offers a way for other developing countries too. The article makes six basic points:
China’s development path and model accord with its national conditions. History has proven that no country can achieve rejuvenation by “relying on external forces, copying foreign models and following the lead of others.”
At present, the Chinese people have firm confidence in the path of development, because the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics suits China’s national conditions, conforms to China’s national characteristics, and conforms to the development of the times.
China’s development achievements have shown that there is no one development model that yields success, and each and everyone has the right to explore their own development path.
China’s path has opened up a new pathway for developing countries to accelerate development and maintain their independence.
China is committed to pursuing its own path and embracing the world with an open mind. It is also ready to learn from the outstanding achievements of other civilisations.
As the world focuses on the great achievements made by the CPC in its centennial struggle, political parties of many countries are hoping to share governance experience with the CPC and learn from China’s development path.
Page 4: A report on comments by Guo Shengkun, head of the Commission for Political and Legal Affairs, urging political and legal workers nationwide to study and implement the guiding principles of the 6th Plenum. Xinhua English reports: “Stressing the importance of prioritizing political security, Guo said that efforts should focus on preventing risks, safeguarding security and stability, and promoting development, among other tasks. Guo also emphasised the need to firmly uphold the Party's leadership over political and legal work, strengthen Party building in terms of political affairs, and consolidate the results of improving conduct among political and legal workers.”
Next, a report about 6th Plenum propaganda work in Heilongjiang, Hubei, Sichuan, Gansu. Finally, a report about Jiang Jinquan, director of the Policy Research Office of the CPC Central Committee, visiting People’s Daily for 6th Plenum-related propaganda work.
Page 6: Today’s post-6th-plenum article by a senior official is by Yang Jiechi, discussing the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind. He talks about the need to grasp the general trend of world development and the historical position of China and calls for continuing to comprehensively promote major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, and make unremitting efforts to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and create a better future for mankind.
The first section of the article deals with history. But before getting into this, Yang makes a high moral point. He talks about how the Party’s cause is closely linked with the future progress of humanity. He says that China’s development under the Party’s rule has not only “fundamentally changed the future and destiny of the Chinese people” but also “profoundly influenced the course of world history, and profoundly changed the trend and pattern of world development.”
For instance, Yang argues that the establishment of the PRC and the abolishing of “all the unequal treaties imposed on China by foreign powers and all the imperialist privileges in China, put an end to the humiliating diplomacy of the old China, and made a solemn declaration to the world that the Chinese people had stood up and that the days when the Chinese nation was trampled and bullied by others were gone forever. The People’s Republic of China, standing in the East with a brand new posture, greatly changed the world political structure and inspired the oppressed nations and peoples of the world in their struggle for liberation.” 新中国的成立，彻底废除了列强强加给中国的不平等条约和帝国主义在中国的一切特权，彻底结束了旧中国的屈辱外交，向世界庄严宣告中国人民站起来了，中华民族任人宰割、饱受欺凌的时代一去不复返了。中华人民共和国以崭新的姿态屹立于世界东方，极大改变了世界政治格局，鼓舞了全世界被压迫民族和被压迫人民争取解放的斗争.
“During the period of socialist revolution and construction, our Party adhered to the independent foreign policy of peace, advocated and adhered to the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, firmly safeguarded national independence, sovereignty and dignity, supported and assisted the world’s oppressed in national liberation, and the just struggle of people of all countries, and opposed imperialism, hegemonism, colonialism and racism. The party adjusted its diplomatic strategy according to the situation, effectively safeguarding the international strategic balance and world peace and stability. The Party put forward the strategy of dividing the three worlds, made a solemn commitment that China would never seek hegemony, and won the respect and praise of the international community, especially the vast number of developing countries. China has restored all its legal rights in the United Nations, opened up a new situation in its foreign work, and started to stride towards the international stage in all directions.” 社会主义革命和建设时期，我们党坚持独立自主的和平外交政策，倡导和坚持和平共处五项原则，坚定维护国家独立、主权、尊严，支持和援助世界被压迫民族解放事业、新独立国家建设事业和各国人民正义斗争，反对帝国主义、霸权主义、殖民主义、种族主义。党审时度势调整外交战略，有力维护了国际战略平衡和世界和平稳定。党提出划分三个世界的战略，作出中国永远不称霸的庄严承诺，赢得国际社会特别是广大发展中国家的尊重和赞誉。我国恢复了在联合国的一切合法权利，打开对外工作新局面，开始全方位大踏步走向国际舞台.
In the reform and opening up era, the Party “adjusted its relations with major powers, developed good-neighborly and friendly relations with neighboring countries, deepened friendly cooperation with other developing countries, actively participated in international and regional affairs, and established a new pattern of all-dimensional and multi-level foreign relations.” He also says that the Party has since actively promoted “world multi-polarisation and democratization of international relations, the development of economic globalization in a direction conducive to common prosperity.” In doing so, it has taken “a clear-cut stand against hegemonism and power politics, determined to maintain the developing countries’ interests.”
In the new era, Xi has “profoundly grasped the historical experience and laws of development of human society, drawn on the ideas and wisdom of excellent Chinese traditional culture, and creatively put forward major initiatives to promote the construction of a Community of Shared Future for Mankind from the strategic height of coordinating the overall situation of the strategy of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the profound changes unseen in a century.” 中国特色社会主义进入新时代，习近平总书记深刻把握人类社会历史经验和发展规律，汲取中华优秀传统文化的思想智慧，从统筹中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局的战略高度，创造性地提出推动构建人类命运共同体重大倡议.
“General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed the importance of establishing partnerships based on equality, mutual consultation and mutual understanding, creating a security architecture featuring fairness, justice, joint contribution and shared benefits, pursuing open, innovative, inclusive and mutually beneficial development, promoting exchanges between civilisations featuring harmony without uniformity and inclusiveness, and building an ecological system that respects nature and promotes green development. It has charted the course and drawn a blueprint for achieving common development, lasting peace and prosperity for mankind.” 习近平总书记强调指出，要建立平等相待、互商互谅的伙伴关系，营造公道正义、共建共享的安全格局，谋求开放创新、包容互惠的发展前景，促进和而不同、兼收并蓄的文明交流，构筑尊崇自然、绿色发展的生态体系，为人类社会实现共同发展、长治久安、持续繁荣指明了方向、绘制了蓝图.
Through these efforts, he argues: “China has become recognised by the international community as a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development and a defender of the international order.” 中国成为国际社会公认的世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者. -- Quick thought: Evidently, the appearance of moral superiority or being morally justified matters a lot. Of course, the thing is that Beijing is challenging and seeking to change the yardstick/shift the goalpost for assessing what is moral.
The next section of the article talks about how Xi’s diplomacy has achieved much success and praise from other countries. He argues that China’s development has contributed to world development and opened new opportunities for others. He lauds China’s diplomacy during the pandemic. He talks about China’s policies to deal with climate change, particularly the announcement of carbon peak and neutrality targets. In this context, he adds: “We adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and have played an important role in promoting the establishment of a fair and effective global mechanism to address climate change and achieve a higher level of global sustainable development.” 我们坚持共同但有区别的责任原则，为推动建立公平有效的全球应对气候变化机制、实现更高水平的全球可持续发展发挥重要作用.
He further writes: “General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed that China will unswervingly follow the basic state policy of opening-up, pursue development with its door open, and pursue a more comprehensive, in-depth and diversified opening-up pattern...We have promoted trade and investment liberalisation and facilitation, promoted institutional openness based on rules, regulations, and standards, and built an open economy that is mutually beneficial, diversified, balanced, secure and efficient. We call for joint efforts to move global development to a new stage of balanced, coordinated and inclusive development, give development a prominent place in the global macro policy framework, ensure and improve people’s livelihood through development, address unbalanced and inadequate development among and within countries, and build a global community of shared future for development.” 习近平总书记强调，中国坚定不移实行对外开放的基本国策，坚持打开国门搞建设，打造更全面、更深入、更多元的对外开放格局...我们推动对内对外开放相互促进，推动贸易和投资自由化便利化，推动规则、规制、管理、标准等制度型开放，构建互利共赢、多元平衡、安全高效的开放型经济体系。我们倡导共同推动全球发展迈向平衡协调包容的新阶段，坚持将发展置于全球宏观政策框架的突出位置，在发展中保障和改善民生，着力解决国家间和各国内部发展不平衡不充分问题，构建全球发展命运共同体. -- He also talked up BRI here.
The last paragraph in this section talks about multilateralism. “General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that global affairs should be jointly governed by all countries, and international rules should be written by all countries. No country has the right to dominate international affairs, dictate the destiny of other countries, or monopolise the advantages of development.” He talks about China supporting the international order with the UN at its core and opposing “unilateralism, protectionism, hegemonism and power politics” and “opposing the so-called ‘rules-based international order’.”
In the final section, Yang writes that the history resolution talks about the importance of keeping “to the path of peaceful development, developing our country by safeguarding world peace and contributing to world peace through our development...moving forward in tandem with all progressive forces around the world...never relying on others, taking advantage of others, or seeking hegemony. As long as we stick to these principles, we will be able to continue contributing our wisdom and strength to the progress of human civilisation and work with the people of other countries to keep the wheels of history rolling toward a brighter future.”
At this juncture, the Party’s foreign affairs work must follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and fully implement Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy. So this means that going ahead:
“follow the path of peaceful development, pursue a win-win strategy of opening-up, firmly uphold the basic norms governing international relations, and uphold international fairness and justice”
“The principle of sovereign equality should be upheld. The sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries should be inviolable, and their right to independently choose their social systems and development paths should be safeguarded.”
China opposes the “wilful use or threat of force in handling international disputes. We firmly oppose arbitrary interference in other countries’ internal affairs under the guise of so-called democracy, freedom and human rights.”
“oppose all forms of hegemonism and power politics, and encourage all countries to follow the path of peaceful development and take a new path of state-to-state relations featuring dialogue rather than confrontation and partnership rather than alliance.”
Focus on high-quality BRI, build a high-quality open economy, implement dual circulation, “deepen multilateral, bilateral and regional economic and trade cooperation and build a network of high-standard free trade zones open to the world,” and “support an open, transparent, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, safeguard the security, stability and openness of global industrial and supply chains, and steer economic globalisation in the right direction. We should strengthen international macroeconomic policy coordination…”
consolidate and deepen a global network of partnerships featuring equality, openness and cooperation.
“We will deepen the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era. We will urge the US side to work with China to respect each other’s core concerns, properly manage differences, strengthen dialogue and cooperation and jointly promote the sound and steady development of China-US relations. We will work to ensure that China-EU relations follow the direction of peaceful coexistence, openness and cooperation, multilateralism, dialogue and coordination. We will deepen relations with neighboring countries in accordance with the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness and the foreign policy of forging friendship and partnership with our neighbors. We will uphold justice while pursuing shared interests and the principles of sincerity, tangible results, affinity and good faith, and continue to strengthen solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries. 深入发展中俄新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系。敦促美方同中方相向而行，尊重彼此核心关切，妥善管控分歧，加强对话合作，共同推动中美关系健康稳定发展。推动中欧关系把握和平共处、开放合作、多边主义、对话协调大方向。按照亲诚惠容理念和与邻为善、以邻为伴周边外交方针，深化同周边国家关系。秉持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念，不断增强同发展中国家团结合作.
“We should have a deep understanding of the new contradictions and challenges posed by the complex international environment, adopt a bottom-line thinking, be more mindful of potential dangers, display the spirit of struggle, implement an overall approach to national security, and resolutely safeguard China's core and major interests. We should give top priority to political security, resolutely safeguard the leadership of the CPC and the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and resolutely safeguard the security of state power and system. We will firmly safeguard China’s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, constantly consolidate the pattern of the international community’s adherence to the one-China principle, and effectively respond to the acts of external forces interfering in China’s internal affairs and harming China's interests. We will properly handle economic and trade frictions and all forms of protectionism, safeguard economic, financial, cyber and biological security, and guard against and withstand external risks and shocks. We will adhere to the people-centered philosophy, practice diplomacy for the people, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese citizens and enterprises overseas, and build an overseas Chinese safety system.” 坚定捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益，为中华民族伟大复兴保驾护航。深刻认识错综复杂的国际环境带来的新矛盾新挑战，坚持底线思维、增强忧患意识、发扬斗争精神，贯彻总体国家安全观，坚决维护国家核心和重大利益。把政治安全放在首要位置，坚决捍卫中国共产党的领导和中国特色社会主义制度，坚决捍卫国家政权安全和制度安全。坚定维护国家领土主权和海洋权益，不断巩固国际社会坚持一个中国原则的格局，有力回击外部势力干涉我国内政、损害我国利益的行径。妥善应对经贸摩擦和各种形式的保护主义，维护经济、金融、网络、生物等领域安全，防范和抵御外部风险冲击。坚持以人民为中心理念，践行外交为民宗旨，维护海外中国公民和企业正当权益，构建海外中国平安体系。
The next paragraph says that China is committed to thet “international system with the United Nations as its core” and will “promote the United Nations to become the core platform for all countries to jointly safeguard universal security, share development achievements and jointly master the destiny of the world.”
“China is committed to stabilising the international order, advocating democracy and the rule of law in international relations, ensuring equal participation in decision-making, enjoyment of rights and fulfilment of obligations by all countries, ensuring uniform application of international law, and opposing double standards and exceptionalism.” 致力于稳定国际秩序，大力倡导国际关系民主化法治化，坚持各国平等参与决策、享受权利、履行义务，确保国际法统一适用，反对双重标准和例外主义. Quick thought: Basically, this says that for now, China will challenge any exceptional treatment that the US enjoys, unless China enjoys it too.
“We will take a constructive part in and lead the formulation of global governance rules, actively promote international cooperation on climate change, participate in international governance in cyberspace, deep sea, polar regions and outer space, and contribute more Chinese proposals.”建设性参与和引领全球治理规则制定，积极推动国际气候变化合作，参与网络、深海、极地、外空等国际治理，贡献更多中国方案.
The final paragraph talks about dialogue between civilisations. Yang’s basic point here is that it is important to “uphold the common values of peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, uphold equality and respect, reject arrogance and prejudice, and oppose the Cold War mentality, drawing lines based on ideology and zero-sum games.” He says that China will “resolutely oppose” any lecturing by so-called “master-teacher”教师爷. Yang ends by promising to expand international communication to “present a true, three-dimensional and comprehensive China and build a credible, loveable and respectable image of China.”
The lead piece on the theory page is by Ma Jiantang, who talks about the significance of the two establishments.
A piece on why the movie The Battle at Lake Changjin has been such a success? Well, the answer is that it is the most “vivid class on patriotism” and its success proves that “literature and art should be created for the people, speak for the times, meet the cultural needs of the people, and enhance the people’s spiritual strength.”
Two other bits from outside PD:
First, this report on the rocky start it seems between the new German coalition and China. China warns off new German government over Taiwan, Hong Kong and Xinjiang
Second, an observation: I think it’s really interesting that there has been hardly anything in PD about the Biden administration’s democracy summit, particularly the invitation to Taiwan. This is the case despite the foreign ministry basically talking about this routinely since the announcement. You can see the daily MoFA briefings here, or the Chinese defense ministry’s criticism from yesterday.