Qin Gang's Visits to Benin, Angola & Egypt - Shandong Party Chief on 2023 Economic Work - Xinjiang Propaganda via Foreign Diplomats - New Guideline to Develop Data Security Industry
Here are the stories and pieces that I found noteworthy from the Monday, January 16, 2023, edition of the People’s Daily.
Page 1: The top story today is an article informing that Qiushi’s latest edition has published Xi Jinping’s speech delivered at the first group study session of the Politburo of the 20th CPC Central Committee. The focus of the remarks were on studying, understanding and implementing the guiding principles of the 20th Party Congress. Xi had called on the Politburo to take the lead in this regard. He also emphasised the importance of “unifying the thoughts and actions of the whole party” behind the spirit of the 20th Party Congress.
The text on Qiushi makes three points:
Study the spirit of the 20th Party Congress
Have a comprehensive understanding of the outcomes of the Congress
Work hard to implement the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee
These three points are captured in the PD report too.
In terms of studying, Xi called for reading the report of the 20th Party Congress in its original form and understanding the principles outlined therein. He called for combining the study of the report with the series of speeches and related documents from the Congress and with the spirit of the 18th and 19th Party Congresses. He added that studying is not about merely memorising some concepts and formulations. Rather, one must keep the context of the historic achievements and changes in the cause of the Party and country since the 18th Party Congress, the extraordinary journey over the past decade, the practical steps taken in comprehensively deepening reform and opening up, promoting high-quality development and effectively responding to major risks and challenges, and the profound changes in the international environment, in order to profoundly understand the historical logic, theoretical logic and practical logic of the 20th Party Congress with regard to the major policies and strategic arrangements for the development of the cause of the Party and the country. 文章指出，要在全面学习上下功夫。只有全面、系统、深入学习，才能完整、准确、全面领会党的二十大精神，对是什么、干什么、怎么干了然于胸，为贯彻落实打下坚实基础。首先要读原文、悟原理。要原原本本学习党的二十大报告，同时要把学习报告同学习大会系列讲话和相关文件结合起来，同学习党的十八大报告、十九大报告精神结合起来，联系着学。学习不能仅停留在记住一些概念和提法。要紧密联系党的十八大以来党和国家事业取得的历史性成就、发生的历史性变革，联系这些年来我们走过的极不寻常、极不平凡的历程，联系我们深化改革开放、推动高质量发展、有效应对重大风险挑战的具体实践，联系国际环境深刻变化，深刻领悟党的二十大关于党和国家事业发展大政方针和战略部署的历史逻辑、理论逻辑、实践逻辑.
The next two paragraphs include a call to fully grasp the strategic arrangements made by the 20th Party Congress and focus on implementation. I don’t see anything really new from what was shared in the report after the study session, which I had covered back in October. Back then, the report had Xi saying that if one does not focus on implementation then the best of plans are like building castles in the air. But let me add a few quotes from the text in Qiushi.
“The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China profoundly clarifies the basic connotation and practical significance of combining the basic principles of Marxism with China’s specific reality and with the excellent traditional Chinese culture. It systematically expounds the world outlook, methodology and principles and methods that run through the Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, which emphasise the need to adhere to the supremacy of the people, to self-confidence and self-reliance, to integrity and innovation, to problem orientation, to system concepts, and to keeping the world in mind to continue to promote theoretical innovation on the basis of practice. Only by deeply understanding the ‘two combines’ and the ‘six must adherences’ can we deeply understand the spirit of the 20th Party Congress and always be clear in our direction and thinking and deal with various problems and major risks and challenges in a forceful manner with strong actions.” 党的二十大报告深刻阐明了把马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合、同中华优秀传统文化相结合的基本内涵和实践意义，系统阐述了新时代中国特色社会主义思想的世界观、方法论和贯穿其中的立场观点方法，强调以必须坚持人民至上、坚持自信自立、坚持守正创新、坚持问题导向、坚持系统观念、坚持胸怀天下来继续推进实践基础上的理论创新。只有深刻领会“两个结合”、“六个必须坚持”，才能深刻理解党的二十大精神，在面对各种矛盾问题和重大风险挑战时始终做到方向明确、头脑清醒、应对有方、行动有力.
In the subsequent paragraph in the speech, Xi says that it is important to study the outcomes of the 20th Party Congress in the context of the developments since the 18th Party Congress. He says: “Practice has proven that the path we have taken is correct, the ideas we create and the decisions we have made are scientific, and our work has been effective.” 实践证明，我们走的道路是正确的，我们创立的思想和作出的决策是科学的，我们的工作是有成效的. — I guess any good politician will make this point.
Finally, making the point about implementation, Xi said the following:
“In particular, it must be stressed that in governing a big Party and country like ours, nothing can be accomplished without the authority and centralised and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee, and without the whole Party and the whole country having unified thinking and acting in concert. The comrades of the Politburo should take the lead in safeguarding the authority of the CPC Central Committee and centralising and unifying leadership, taking the lead in implementing the decision-making and deployments of the CPC Central Committee, taking the overall situation into consideration…” 特别要强调的是，治理我们这样的大党大国，如果没有党中央权威和集中统一领导，如果没有全党全国思想统一、步调一致，什么事也办不成。政治局的同志尤其要带头维护党中央权威和集中统一领导，带头贯彻党中央决策部署，带头顾全大局，在履行自身职责、抓好分管工作的同时，注意兼顾上下左右，加强协同配合.
Next, there’s a report on the meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th CPPCC National Committee. The focus of this meeting is to prepare for the 14th CPPCC National Committee's first session. Xinhua reports:
“Participants will discuss and decide the quota and list of names of the members of the 14th CPPCC National Committee. The committee will deliberate and vote on the work report of the Standing Committee of the 13th CPPCC National Committee and a report on proposals, which are to be submitted at the annual session, as well as a draft amendment to the CPPCC charter. They will also discuss and vote on the draft timetable and agenda of the upcoming annual session.”
Third, there’s a report on the resumption of the high-speed rail link connecting Hong Kong and Guangzhou, which resumed services on Sunday. This had been closed for three years.
Also on the page is an article featuring the company Sanxiang Advanced Materials, which has emerged over the years as a little giant enterprise. The article talks about the company developing a material called nano zirconia. Some of the policy messages from the piece are:
Sanxiang is located in Shouning County, Ningde City, which is a mountainous area. How does a company located there get to become a little giant? The answer in a nutshell is that it stayed away from the temptation of “quick money” and “hot money” by entering sectors like mining, real estate, microfinance, etc, and focused on doing its best in terms of the professional domain that it was engaged in. 本世纪初，企业进军电熔氧化锆业务，开始在新材料领域的多年深耕，这期间，赚“快钱”“热钱”的机会不少——从矿山经营到房地产开发再到小额贷款公司，都被夏鹏一一拒绝。“山区小企业，不能贪大求全，不搞四面出击，而要专注专业领域，全力做到最好.”
The root of innovation lies in talents.
Local party committees and governments must spare no effort in supporting enterprises to move towards the high-end, intelligent and green development path.
Page 2: There’s an interview with Shandong Party Secretary Lin Wu. I am summarising the key points below. He says that:
Shandong’s GDP last year is estimated to have grown by 4%, reaching about 8.7 trillion yuan. The output value of high-tech industries has reached 48.3%. Provincial-level scientific and technological innovation development funds have increased by 10%, and a number of high-energy innovation platforms such as the National Virtual Reality Innovation Center have been established. The proportion of fiscal expenditure on people's livelihood has reached 79.1%, 20 key livelihood domains saw implementation, and per capita disposable income of residents increased by about 5%.
Going ahead, he says the focus will be on the principle of moving ahead and opening new situations/avenues, which was the principle outlined by Xi Jinping. He talks about focusing on high quality development and focusing on highlighting Shandong as a green, low-carbon and high-quality development pioneer area. The goal will be to implement the plan for 10 demand expansions, 10 innovations and 10 industries. 我们将积极抢抓先行区建设的重大战略机遇，扎实落实国家意见和我省三年行动计划，深入实施“十大创新”“十大扩需求”“十强产业”行动计划，推动先行区全面启动、强势开局，以先行区建设牵引我省高质量发展.
In response to the second question, Lin talks about goals related to innovation. He says that the province will “strive to reach about 25 national key laboratories and 10 provincial laboratories with high standards. Actively promote the development of major platforms such as the National Clinical Medical Research Center, it will implement the plan of cultivating high-tech enterprises, and strive to reach 28,000 high-tech enterprises.” 加快构建“1313”四级实验室体系，力争全国重点实验室达到25家左右，高标准建设省实验室10家左右。积极推动国家临床医学研究中心等重大平台落地。实施科技型企业培育行动，力争高新技术企业达到2.8万家.
He talks about the province’s improved institutional support for innovation, stating that in the fields of artificial intelligence, electronic information, biomedicine, etc., about 100 major scientific and technological innovation projects have been carried out and efforts have been made to overcome bottlenecks in technology. 在人工智能、电子信息、生物医药等领域，通过“揭榜挂帅”等方式，实施100项左右重大科技创新项目，着力突破“卡脖子”技术。He also promises more support for high-tech talents, work to build first-class disciplines and a new round of pilot projects to jointly promote the reform and development of vocational education. 聚力引育创新人才，打造高水平创新团队。深化领军人才“筑峰计划”，提升泰山、齐鲁人才工程，实施青年人才集聚专项行动，建立顶尖人才“直通车”机制，更大力度吸引集聚战略人才力量。推进一流学科建设“811”项目，启动新一轮部省共同推进职业教育改革发展试点.
On consumption and growth, Lin says that Shandong’s GDP target for the year is 5% and the province will strive to return to pre-pandemic levels at the earliest. He talks about utilising investment effectively by promoting the implementation of about 2000 provincial key projects, and boosting exports.
Finally, in the context of the industrial system, he talks about support for the new generation of information technology, high-end equipment, new energy and new materials, accelerating the construction of a modern industrial system, and strengthening of the ‘industrial backbone’ of Shandong. He adds:
“With regard to traditional industries, we will take technological transformation as the direction, focus on chemicals, light industry, machinery and equipment, and promote high-end, intelligent, and green development. With regard to competitive industries, we will consolidate and upgrade national-level advanced manufacturing clusters, such as smart home appliances, rail transit, and power equipment to become world-class clusters. With regard to emerging industries, we will foster a number of national and provincial strategic emerging industry clusters with the aim of achieving strong breakthroughs. For future industries, we will focus on quantum technology, aerospace information and virtual reality in the direction of advanced layout, and accelerate the cultivation of a number of future industrial demonstration clusters.” 对传统产业，以技改转型为方向，聚焦化工、轻工、机械装备等产业，推动实现高端化、智能化、绿色化发展。对优势产业，以巩固提升为方向，推动智能家电、轨道交通、动力装备等国家级先进制造业集群向世界级集群迈进。对新兴产业，以强力突破为方向，新培育一批国家级和省级战略性新兴产业集群。对未来产业，以超前布局为方向，聚焦量子科技、空天信息、虚拟现实等，加快培育一批未来产业示范集群。
On agriculture, he promises to implement a new round of actions to improve grain production capacity, carry out seed industry revitalisation actions, promote the upgrading of the whole agricultural industrial chain, promote the extension and integration of agriculture with the secondary and tertiary industries, and cultivate industrial clusters focused on soybean and fisheries. 实施新一轮粮食产能提升行动，开展种业振兴行动，支持有条件的市开展“吨半粮”产能建设。推进农业全产业链提升工程，推动农业与二、三产业延伸融合，培育沿黄大豆、半岛渔业等千亿级优势产业集群，创建国家级现代农业产业园、农业产业强镇.
On services, he talks about building new clusters of modern service industries. Also, Lin says that the province will carry out trials for innovation in social services for agriculture, and develop new forms of business that integrate agriculture, culture and tourism, such as leisure agriculture and creative agriculture. He says the province will move forward with trials to develop national smart ports, strengthen weak links in aviation logistics, and build a modern circulation system. 推动现代服务业“扩量提质”。实施生产性服务业百企升级引领计划，新认定一批现代服务业集聚区。开展农业社会化服务创新试点，发展休闲农业、创意农业等农文旅融合发展新业态。推进国家智慧港口建设试点，补齐航空物流短板，构建现代流通体系.
On the digital economy, he talks about the “construction of a national industrial Internet demonstration zone” and focussing on the digital transformation of the manufacturing industry.
Finally, Lin says that the province will adhere to the two unwaverings, and will “revise the regulations on the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises, issue opinions to support the high-quality development of the private economy, and optimise the system of regulations and policies for the private economy.” 推动民营企业高质量发展。坚定落实“两个毫不动摇”，进一步优化民营企业发展环境、营造良好发展预期。修订中小企业促进条例，出台支持民营经济高质量发展意见，优化民营经济法规政策体系.
Also on the page is an article on the work done to ensure high-standard farmland for cultivation of food crops. I am not doing a full breakdown. The key goals talked about are:
“By the end of 2022, a total of 1 billion mu of high-standard farmland has been built across the country, stably guaranteeing a grain production capacity of more than 1 trillion catties. More than half of the 1.918 billion mu of cultivated land is high-standard farmland. In 2023, China will continue to strengthen the construction of high-standard farmland, build 45 million mu of new land, and upgrade 35 million mu of land.” 到2022年底全国已累计建成10亿亩高标准农田，稳定保障1万亿斤以上粮食产能，19.18亿亩耕地超过一半是高标准农田。2023年我国将继续加强高标准农田建设，新建4500万亩、改造提升3500万亩.
The piece then discusses what it means to build high-standard farmland.
In the article, Guo Yongtian, director of the Department of Farmland Enhancement of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, says that high-standard farmland refers to a farmland with flat land, concentrated contiguous plots, complete facilities, fertile soil, good ecology, strong disaster resistance, which guarantees harvest despite droughts and floods and provides high and stable yield and is compatible with modern agricultural production and management modes.
Wu Hongwei from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, says that there are three highs that must be kept in mind or improved to build high-standard farmland.
High quality of land, i.e., fertility of the soil
High output capacity through not just fertility but also connectivity
High efficiency of resource utilisation, such as water and fertilisers.
Page 3: There’s a report with comments from foreign envoys and diplomats in China, who have been given tours to Xinjiang to visit “mosques, Islamic schools, museums, old city renovation sites, grassroots communities, technology companies, green development and rural revitalization projects.” Of course, these are guided tours and what we then get is positive propaganda from foreign diplomats, praising development in Xinjiang. The big culprit in this is Western media.
The report says that “the foreign envoys said that the Chinese government insists on putting the people at the centre, and has made great achievements in promoting the governance and development of Xinjiang. People of all ethnic groups are living in harmony and happiness, and the freedom of religious belief and rights of Muslims are duly guaranteed…” 外国使节们纷纷表示，中国政府坚持以人民为中心，推动新疆的治理和发展取得巨大成就，各族人民在这里生活和谐幸福，穆斯林宗教信仰自由和各项权利得到应有保障，天山南北呈现安定祥和、蓬勃发展的新气象.
There’s a comment from the n charge d'affaires at the Yemeni Embassy in China, who says that the situation is very different from what Western media shows. Shorsh Khalid Said, the Iraqi ambassador to China, says that he was deeply impressed by the fact that road signs had two languages — the national common language of China and the local minority languages. “This proves that the languages of the local ethnic groups are fully protected.” 伊拉克驻华大使舒尔什·赛义德表示，让他印象很深的是所到地方的路牌路标上面都有两种语言文字——中国国家通用语言文字和当地的少数民族语言文字，“这证明当地各民族的语言文字受到了充分保护”.
The article also informs that in 2022, Xinjiang's import and export trade volume with BRI countries was 223.89 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 63.5%, accounting for 90.9% of Xinjiang's total foreign trade. 据乌鲁木齐海关统计，2022年，新疆对“一带一路”沿线国家进出口贸易额达2238.9亿元人民币，同比增长63.5%，占新疆外贸进出口总值的90.9%.
Ambassador of Saudi Arabia to China Abdulrahman Ahmad Al-Harbi says that “Xinjiang's development achievements are impressive” and that the Kingdom is “willing to continue to strengthen cooperation with Xinjiang and invest in technology, knowledge and other fields.” 沙特阿拉伯驻华大使哈勒比表示，新疆发展成就令人瞩目，同世界的联系日益紧密，愿继续加强和新疆合作，在技术、知识等领域开展更多投资.
Likewise, there are words of praise from the ambassadors of Bahrain, Syria and Guinea-Bissau, while the Ambassador of Azerbaijan Akram Zeynalli said that the living conditions of the employees and the conditions of the dormitory buildings for those employed in the cotton industry in Xinjiang was “very good.”
Next, there’s an article on China-Africa relations in the context of Qin Gang’s visit to the continent. This basically underscores the prism of competition, by making the case that China has been a sincere partner for African countries, unlike some other states.
First the piece talks about the deepening of China-Africa ties.
“China has been Africa's largest trading partner for 13 consecutive years, and the trade volume between China and Africa is expected to exceed US$260 billion in 2022. Fifty-two African countries and the African Union Commission have signed BRI cooperation documents. Landmark projects such as the African Union Headquarters, the Mombasa-Nairobi Railway, and the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway have been built. Cooperation projects in roads, electricity, communications, and ports have been carried out all over Africa. These achievements are visible and tangible, and have played an important role in promoting Africa's economic and social development and improving people's livelihood. They have fully demonstrated the quality of China-Africa relations and the background of China-Africa friendship.” 中国连续13年成为非洲第一大贸易伙伴国，2022年中非贸易额预计突破2600亿美元。52个非洲国家和非盟委员会同中方签署“一带一路”合作文件，非盟会议中心、蒙内铁路、亚吉铁路等标志性工程不断涌现，公路、电力、通信、港口等合作项目遍布非洲。这些成果看得见、摸得着，为促进非洲经济社会发展和民生改善发挥了重要作用，充分展现了中非关系的成色和中非友谊的底色.
The next paragraph highlights positive comments from African leaders, and then we get this:
“For some time now, some countries have deliberately provoked camp confrontation in Africa in an attempt to force African countries to choose sides. This practice goes against the will of African countries and the general trend of the development of the times. Africa should be a big stage for international cooperation, not a battleground for great power games. Only countries that sincerely help Africa achieve peace and development, and sincerely help Africa strive for greater representation and voice in the international governance agenda, will receive the support of African countries. The Institute for Global Dialogue in South Africa recently released a report, pointing out that certain countries have never taken practical measures to help Africa cope with development challenges, but have only tried to cultivate African countries as tools to curb the influence of other countries. Compared with this bullying diplomacy, China’s stance of non-interference in internal affairs and mutual benefit is warmly welcomed by African countries.” 一段时间以来，个别国家刻意在非洲挑起阵营对抗，妄图强迫非洲国家选边站队，这种做法违背非洲国家意愿，违逆时代发展大势。非洲应该是国际合作的大舞台，不应是大国博弈的角力场。只有真心诚意帮助非洲实现和平与发展，真心诚意帮助非洲争取国际治理议程中更大代表性和发言权的国家，才会得到非洲国家的支持。南非全球对话研究所不久前发布报告指出，个别国家从未采取务实举措帮助非洲应对发展挑战，只是妄图把非洲国家培养成遏制他国影响力的工具。相较于这种霸凌式外交，中国不干涉内政、互利共赢的立场受到非洲各国热烈欢迎.
While on the subject, let’s look at Qing Gang’s other meetings over the weekend. First, Qin met with Beninese President Patrice Talon on Friday. Xinhua reports:
“Benin cherishes China's long-term support and assistance, Talon said, adding that Benin, though small in size, stands on the side of truth, equality and justice, and will continue to be a steadfast and reliable friend of China. China has found the right development path and made achievements that impressed the whole world, achievements that have deeply inspired all the developing countries, the president said. He said Benin looks forward to learning from China's experience, deepening and expanding practical cooperation with China, and accelerating national development and revitalization.”
The report adds:
“China appreciates Benin's understanding and support on issues concerning China's core interests and major concerns, and stands ready to continue as a sincere partner of Benin with mutual political trust and forge ahead together in development, Qin said. He said China is looking forward to jointly implementing the important consensus reached by the two heads of state and the outcomes of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), so as to continuously push China-Benin relations to new levels. Beijing encourages more capable and reputable Chinese companies to invest in Benin, and hopes that Benin will safeguard the safety and legitimate rights and interests of Chinese institutions and personnel, Qin said. He said that China has always adhered to the leadership of the Communist Party of China in its reforms and development, stayed committed to independence, and never simply copied the models of any other countries. China is willing to strengthen experience-sharing on state governance with Benin, and support its pursuit of a development path suited to Benin's national realities, Qin said.”
Other reporting on the visit to Benin informs that the two sides have signed an MoU on partial debt cancellation. But the details are sketchy. Earlier, there were reports of a similar partial debt forgiveness agreement between China and Ethiopia during Qin’s visit to the country. Again, there were no details regarding the amount. I haven’t noted any of this in state media in China. These reports are from broadcasters in these African countries.
Qin also met with Angolan President Joao Lourenco on Friday. Xinhua reports:
“The Angolan president said that the airports, hydropower stations, roads, ports, and many other landmark projects built with China's support have progressed smoothly in the country and played an indispensable role in Angola's post-war reconstruction and socio-economic development. Chinese enterprises have made positive contributions to improving Angola's infrastructure and people's livelihood, Lourenco said, adding that Luanda expects to further deepening cooperation with China and welcomes more Chinese investment in Angola. He said Angola and China have similar visions for development and that Angola firmly adheres to the one-China policy and will continue to work with China to uphold the principle of non-interference in other countries' internal affairs and safeguard international fairness and justice.”
The report adds: “Thanks to the commitment and strategic guidance of the two countries' heads of state, the political mutual trust and traditional friendship between China and Angola have been deepening steadily, and their practical cooperation has yielded fruitful results, Qin said…The Chinese foreign minister said that China appreciates Angola's adherence to the one-China policy and its support for China's just proposals, adding that China will as always support Angola in opposing external interference, independently choosing its own development, and safeguarding its sovereignty, security and development interests. China stands ready to jointly implement the important consensus reached by the two heads of state, upgrade and elevate practical cooperation so as to bring more benefits to the people of both countries, Qin said. He said that China appreciates Angola's active mediation efforts in dealing with regional hot issues, and supports a bigger role for Luanda in international and regional affairs. China will strengthen its coordination with Angola on multilateral affairs, jointly defend genuine multilateralism, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries, and work together to build a community with a shared future for mankind.”
Finally, there’s a report on Qin’s visit to Egypt, where he met with Arab League Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul Gheit on Sunday. The focus of Xinhua’s coverage is with regard to the call to speed up implementing the outcomes of the first China-Arab States Summit. Qin also met with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi and the country’s foreign minister. VOA’s report on Qin’s press conference with foreign minister Sameh Shoukry says:
“Both ministers said they also discussed regional issues including the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Tensions have risen after the return to office last month of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who is heading Israel’s most right-wing and religiously conservative government. Responding to a Chinese reporter’s question, Qin urged Israel to “stop incitements and provocations, and to refrain from taking uniliteral actions that could worsen the situation.” He also called for “maintaining the status quo” at Jerusalem’s most important holy site, after an ultranationalist Israeli Cabinet minister visited it earlier this year. That visit drew fierce condemnation from across the Muslim world and a strong rebuke from the United States. The aspirations for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state must not be rejected, and the international community must adhere to the two-state solution and adhere to the principle of land for peace, according to the Chinese foreign minister. In his meeting with el-Sissi, the Chinese foreign minister said Beijing would continue to develop its investment in Egypt’s infrastructure projects including those with links to China’s Belt and Road initiative.”
Anyway, the Egyptian economy has been facing rough winds, particularly after the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The IMF has recently agreed to a $3 billion, with conditions. This, reports say, will catalyse greater investment. China Development Bank will be providing $1 billion under this program for FY 2022-23.
Page 4: There’s an article bylined Yin Peng, talking about the dialectical perspective on China’s huge population with regard to the country’s modernisation. It argues that China’s modernisation is the modernisation of more than 1.4 billion people, which implies that “China’s modernisation must be highly self-reliant, not dependent on others, and must follow its own path. At the same time, as the world's largest developing country, China's development is still unbalanced and inadequate, with a large population, relatively insufficient resources, and a weak environmental support capacity. This means that to promote Chinese-style modernisation, China must maintain historical patience, persist in striving for progress steadily, step by step and continuously, and make long-term and arduous efforts.” 我国实现现代化，不同于几十万人、几百万人、几千万人的现代化，而是14亿多人口的现代化。这决定了，我国现代化必须是高度自立自强而不能是依附他人的现代化，必须走自己的路。同时，作为世界最大的发展中国家，我国发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出，人口众多、资源相对不足、环境承载力较弱。这意味着，推进中国式现代化必须保持历史耐心，坚持稳中求进、循序渐进、持续推进，付出长期而艰苦的努力. — This is useful narrative to keep in mind. As much as the Party argues that China has arrived at the world stage, there is reflection around the challenges that exist and that further progress will be gradual.
“The huge size of China’s population is a challenge, but it is also a strength, potential and driving force from another perspective. China’s population of over 1.4 billion, with a 400-million-strong middle-class, provides a super-large market and has become an anchor for the steady and long-term growth of the Chinese economy.
China’s per capita GDP is over $12,000, the consumption structure has been rapidly upgraded, and the super-large market has profound growth potential.
Diversified demand and personalised consumption have provided rich application scenarios for new technologies, new industries, new business forms and new models. The super-large market is nurturing vigorous innovation vitality.
Continue with people-centred development, make solid progress in achieving common prosperity, and expand the middle-income group, to ensure that the super-large market provides strong impetus for development.
These advantages provide room for manoeuvre in dealing with uncertainties and provide an important guarantee for strengthening China’s position as the main player in the big cycle.” 人口规模巨大是挑战，换个角度看也是优势、潜能与动力。4亿多中等收入群体、14亿多人口，形成一个超大规模市场，成为中国经济行稳致远的稳定之锚。人均GDP突破1.2万美元，居民消费结构快速升级，超大规模市场具有深厚增长潜力；多样化的需求和个性化的消费，为新技术、新产业、新业态、新模式提供了丰富应用场景，超大规模市场孕育着蓬勃创新活力；坚持以人民为中心，扎实推进共同富裕，不断扩大中等收入群体，超大规模市场涌动着澎湃发展动力。这些优势，为应对不确定难预料因素提供了回旋空间，为增强国内大循环主体地位提供了重要保障.
The piece adds that this large population size lays a solid foundation for high-quality development, by providing intellectual support for high-quality development. The author, however, shares no data to back this argument.
Page 10: A report (full guideline here) informing that 16 central departments including the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Cyberspace Administration of China have issued guidelines on developing the data security industry.
The report says that by 2025, the scale of China’s data security industry will exceed 150 billion yuan, with a compound annual growth rate of more than 30%. It adds that five provincial and ministerial key data security laboratories will be built to tackle a number of key data security technologies and products.
The document also calls to build three to five national data security industrial parks, 10 advanced demonstration zones for innovative applications, and cultivate a number of leading and backbone enterprises with international competitiveness along with individual champion enterprises and specialised, special and new ‘little giant’ enterprises.
Some of the key aspects that the document focuses on are:
Strengthening core research into data security: This calls for focusing on the basic “theory and technology of data security under new computing modes and network architecture, and support the development and application of post-quantum cryptography algorithms, dense state computing and other technologies in the data security industry.” 加强核心技术攻关。推进新型计算模式和网络架构下数据安全基础理论和技术研究，支持后量子密码算法、密态计算等技术在数据安全产业的发展应用.
Building a system of data security products
Integrated innovation in emerging sectors: This entails integration with technologies such as AI, big data and blockchain, and enhancing the capabilities regarding data security situation awareness and risk research and assessment. It also calls for “strengthening the analysis of data security requirements in 5G and 6G mobile communications, industrial Internet, Internet of Things, automobile networking and other fields…” 布局新兴领域融合创新。加快数据安全技术与人工智能、大数据、区块链等新兴技术的交叉融合创新，赋能提升数据安全态势感知、风险研判等能力水平。加强第五代和第六代移动通信、工业互联网、物联网、车联网等领域的数据安全需求分析，推动专用数据安全技术产品创新研发、融合应用。支持数据安全产品云化改造，提升集约化、弹性化服务能力.
The document also talks about the development of a standards system. In this regard, it says:
“Encourage scientific research institutes, enterprises and institutions, universities and vocational institutes and others to actively participate in the formulation of standards, such as those related to data security industry evaluation, data security product technical requirements, data security product evaluation, and data security services. Promote the implementation of standards with high quality and efficiency, and increase the application and promotion of standards. Actively participate in the activities of international standards for data security to promote coordinated development at home and abroad.” 鼓励科研院所、企事业单位、普通高等院校及职业院校等各类主体积极参与数据安全产业评价、数据安全产品技术要求、数据安全产品评测、数据安全服务等标准制定。高质高效推进贯标工作，加大标准应用推广力度。积极参与数据安全国际标准组织活动，推动国内国际协同发展.
Later the document also talks about international collaboration. It says:
“Make full use of bilateral and multilateral mechanisms to strengthen data security industry policy exchanges and cooperation. Strengthen cooperation with the data security industry of BRI partner countries, promote standard convergence and mutual recognition of certification results, and promote the ‘going global’ of products, services, technologies, and brands. Encourage domestic and foreign data security companies to deepen exchanges and cooperation in technological innovation, product research and development, and application promotion. Explore and build an international innovation and cooperation base for the data security industry. Support the holding of high-level data security international forums and exhibitions. Encourage Chinese scholars and entrepreneurs in the field of data security to actively participate in the work of relevant international organisations.” 充分利用双多边机制，加强数据安全产业政策交流合作。加强与“一带一路”沿线国家数据安全产业合作，促进标准衔接和认证结果互认，推动产品、服务、技术、品牌“走出去”。鼓励国内外数据安全企业在技术创新、产品研发、应用推广等方面深化交流合作。探索打造数据安全产业国际创新合作基地。支持举办高层次数据安全国际论坛和展会。鼓励我国数据安全领域学者、企业家积极参与相关国际组织工作.
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