Xi Meets Putin & Central Asian Leaders in Uzbekistan - Xi's Qiushi Article - Li Zhanshu in Nepal - Comprehensively Deepening Reform - China's Nuclear Energy Expansion
Here are the stories and pieces that I found noteworthy in the Friday, September 16, 2022, edition of the People’s Daily.
Page 1: The front page today is focused on Xi Jinping’s visit to Uzbekistan. At the top of the page is the report about Xi receiving the Order of Friendship conferred by Uzbek President Shavkat Mirziyoyev. Here’s Xinhua’s reporting on Mirziyoyev’s comments, which sound like he has been following Chinese propaganda around Xi very closely. It’s fascinating, although no coincidence, how these state media reports from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have echoed the domestic political priorities of Xi Jinping ahead of the 20th Congress. Anyway, the report has Mirziyoyev saying:
“President Xi is the greatest statesman and a preeminent leader in today's world, Mirziyoyev said, noting that under Xi's wise leadership and personal guidance, China has made proud achievements in economic and social development, particularly its victory of the battle against extreme poverty and completion of the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, which have won extensive respect and recognition from the international community, and China's international status and influence has been on the rise. President Xi is without doubt the core of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the core of all Chinese people, he said. Mirziyoyev expressed his conviction that under the strong leadership of President Xi, China enjoys not only a bright today, but also an even brighter tomorrow. The Uzbek president wished friendly China peace and prosperity, and the Chinese people happiness and good health. Under the personal care and guidance of President Xi, Uzbekistan-China relations have become increasingly mature and full of vitality, and have reached an unprecedented height, he said. Referring to a joint statement signed with Xi on Thursday, he said it will surely elevate the Uzbekistan-China comprehensive strategic partnership to a new height and further benefit the two countries and peoples.”
Next, there’s a report on Xi’s meeting with Mirziyoyev to discuss the bilateral relationship. Xinhua reports Xi as having said that:
“As a good friend, a good partner and a good brother, China firmly supports Uzbekistan in following a development path compatible with its national conditions, supports its efforts to uphold national independence, sovereignty, security and social stability, and opposes interference by any forces in its internal affairs, he said. China is ready to work with Uzbekistan to implement the vision of a China-Uzbekistan community with a shared future, deepen all-round cooperation for mutual benefit and jointly usher in a better future, he said. Xi emphasized that China and Uzbekistan should firmly support each other on issues concerning national sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and other core interests, move faster to synergize their development strategies and promote common development. The two sides need to accelerate the bilateral cooperation and make it even more fruitful, Xi said, adding that it is important to scale up cooperation on trade and investment, and step up collaboration on digital economy and green development. Uzbekistan is welcome to take an active part in the China International Import Expo to share in more of the development opportunities brought by China's massive market, he said. China is ready to work with Uzbekistan to improve the Eurasian transcontinental transport corridors and make an early start in constructing the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan railway project, he said. The two sides need to expand energy cooperation, jointly ensure the safe operation of the China-Central Asia natural gas pipeline and extend cooperation to new energy, with a view to fostering a new pattern of all-dimensional energy cooperation, Xi said. The two sides need to promote people-to-people exchanges and cooperation in areas including education, culture, tourism, sub-national exchanges, environmental protection and archaeology, he said, adding that China supports and will actively take part in Uzbekistan's initiative of ‘year of culture and art between the people of Central Asian countries and China.’ The two sides also need to work together to speed up the establishment of culture centers in each other's country and the building of a Luban Workshop, and communicate the facts of the China-Uzbekistan friendship in the new era, so as to lay a solid public and societal foundation for the sustained and sound growth of China-Uzbekistan relations, Xi said.”
“...Chinese side will continue to carry out healthcare, vaccine and pharmaceutical cooperation with Uzbekistan, and support the building of vaccine production centers in Uzbekistan. The two sides need to enhance cooperation on poverty alleviation, and inspire and support each other in promoting growth and improving livelihoods, he said. Noting that China and Central Asian countries have a shared future and a deep stake in each other's security and stability, Xi said that China is ready to work more closely with Uzbekistan to firmly oppose external interference in internal affairs, firmly safeguard domestic stability and firmly defend the security interests of the region. China appreciates Uzbekistan's important contributions to the success of the SCO Samarkand Summit and is ready to work with Uzbekistan to promote the steady and sustained development of the SCO, Xi said. Xi said that China will work with Uzbekistan and other regional countries to strengthen the China+Central Asia (C+C5) Meeting mechanism and open up broader space for the cooperation between China and Central Asian countries. China will also work with Uzbekistan to actively implement the Global Development Initiative (GDI) and the Global Security Initiative (GSI), uphold the common interests of developing countries and contribute to building a more just and equitable international governance system, he said.”
Among other things, Mirziyoyev said that “Uzbekistan is firmly and unequivocally committed to the one-China principle, firmly supports China's position on matters concerning its core interests including those related to Taiwan and Xinjiang, and will always be a good neighbor, good friend and good partner worthy of China's trust, he said. (Quick thought: That last bit— “worthy of China’s trust” - Wow!) Uzbekistan would like to learn from China's poverty alleviation experience, continue participating actively in the Belt and Road cooperation, advance the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan railway project, and enhance cooperation with China in such areas as economy and trade, investment, natural gas, new energy, agricultural infrastructure, culture, sub-national ties and people-to-people exchanges, he said. Mirziyoyev said Uzbekistan fully supports the GDI and the GSI proposed by China, and appreciates China's strong support for Uzbekistan's presidency of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). He also expressed readiness to work more closely with China within the SCO, C+C5, and "BRICS Plus" mechanisms, to uphold the Shanghai Spirit and to jointly safeguard regional security and stability.”
The report also has this bit: “Describing President Xi as his respected elder brother, Mirziyoyev said he always benefits from their meetings.”
In terms of outcomes, there was a joint statement that was issued; in addition, relevant departments signed multiple cooperation documents covering agriculture, digital economy, green development, culture, sub-national cooperation and media. During the visit, Chinese, Kyrgyz and Uzbek officials signed a trilateral memorandum of understanding concerning cooperation on the Kyrgyz section of the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan railway project.
Third, there’s a brief report (English report) on Xi’s meeting with Russia’s Vladimir Putin. Xinhua reports:
“Since the beginning of this year, China and Russia have maintained effective strategic communication, Xi said. Bilateral cooperation in various fields has moved forward steadily, with activities of the Year of Sports Exchanges well underway, and a robust momentum in sub-national cooperation and people-to-people exchanges, he said. The two countries have maintained close coordination on the international stage to uphold basic norms of international relations, Xi said. In the face of changes of the world, of the times and of history, China will work with Russia to fulfill their responsibilities as major countries and play a leading role in injecting stability into a world of change and disorder, Xi said. He emphasized that China will work with Russia to deepen practical cooperation in trade, agriculture, connectivity and other areas. The two sides need to enhance coordination under multilateral frameworks including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia and the BRICS to promote solidarity and mutual trust among the various parties, expand practical cooperation, and safeguard the security interests of the region as well as the common interests of developing countries and emerging markets, Xi said.”
Putin wished Xi success for the 20th Party Congress, and “noted that the world is undergoing multiple changes, yet the only thing that remains unchanged is the friendship and mutual trust between Russia and China, and that the Russia-China comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination is as stable as mountains. Both Russia and China stand for a more equitable and reasonable international order, setting a fine example in international relations, he said. The Russian side is firmly committed to the one-China principle and condemns the provocative moves by individual countries on issues concerning China's core interests, he said. Putin said Russia will consolidate and deepen bilateral and multilateral communication and collaboration with China, and expand cooperation in key areas such as economy, trade and energy.”
Xinhua adds: “Xi appreciated Russia's adherence to the one-China principle.”
The Russian readout of the meeting is also interesting. As per that, Putin said:
“Ahead of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of China, scheduled for October of this year, I would like to wish you, Comrade President, further success in implementing the large-scale plan for the dynamic development of the Chinese nation. The Russian-Chinese interstate interaction can be regarded as a model. The foreign policy tandem of Moscow and Beijing plays a key role in ensuring global and regional stability. Together, we support building a just, democratic and multipolar world order based on international rules and the central role of the United Nations, not on certain rules that someone has invented and is attempting to impose on others without even explaining what it is all about. In general, I must say that the attempts to create a unipolar world have acquired in recent times an absolutely ugly configuration and they are absolutely unacceptable for the overwhelming majority of states on this planet. We appreciate our Chinese friends’ balanced position in connection with the Ukraine crisis. We understand your questions and your concerns in this regard. During today’s meeting we will certainly explain in detail our position on this issue, although we have spoken about this before now. For our part, we have firmly, in practice, abided by the One China principle. We condemn provocations staged by the United States and its satellites in the Strait of Taiwan.”
Xi’s this quote from the readout is also interesting:
“In the face of ongoing formidable global changes that have never been seen in history, we are ready to work with our Russian colleagues to set an example of what a responsible global power is and assume leadership in order to bring the rapidly changing world onto a path of sustainable and positive development.” – Chinese media translated this comment as: “China will work with Russia to fulfill their responsibilities as major countries and play a leading role in injecting stability into a world of change and disorder.”
Fourth, there’s a report on the China-Russia-Mongolia heads of state meeting. Xinhua reports that Xi Jinping put forth a four-point proposal at the meeting:
First, deepen political mutual trust, increase mutual support, respect and accommodate each other's core interests and major concerns, and strengthen coordination and collaboration in international and regional affairs.
Second, upgrade cooperation within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to jointly build a platform of cooperation against risks and challenges and a platform of growth that helps unleash the potential of development.
Third, follow through on the common understanding reached on the building of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, support the neighboring regions in deepening cooperation in economy and trade, people-to-people exchanges, tourism and other fields, and continue to build high-quality platforms for the exchanges of business communities of the three countries.
Fourth, work for more outcomes in trilateral cooperation and support the expansion of settlement in local currencies in mutual trade. Russian and Mongolian financial institutions are welcome to join the RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment System to build a strong bulwark of financial security in the region.
In terms of outcomes, the report says:
“The three countries confirmed the extension of the Outline of the Development Plan on Establishing the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor by five years, officially launched the feasibility study on the upgrading and development of the central-route railway of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, and agreed to actively move forward the project on the Mongolian section of the China-Russia natural gas pipeline.”
Finally, there’s a report on Qiushi publishing Xi’s article on consistently upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. The report says:
“Socialism with Chinese characteristics did not just fall from the sky. It is, in fact, a valuable result of the painstaking efforts made by the Party and the people at great cost, which is a hard-won achievement. The significant success of socialism with Chinese characteristics in China demonstrates that socialism did not collapse and will not collapse. On the contrary, it has thrived with vigour and vitality…The success of scientific socialism in China has a significant bearing on Marxism, scientific socialism and world socialism…” 文章指出，中国特色社会主义不是从天上掉下来的，而是党和人民历经千辛万苦、付出各种代价取得的宝贵成果。得到这个成果极不容易...中国特色社会主义在中国取得巨大成功表明，社会主义没有灭亡，也不会灭亡，而且焕发出蓬勃生机活力。科学社会主义在中国的成功，对马克思主义、科学社会主义的意义，对世界社会主义的意义，是十分重大的。
“We must realise that this new era is a new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, not any other new era. To realise the historical mission of the Party in the new era in a new historical position, the most fundamental thing is to hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics…” 我们必须认识到，这个新时代是中国特色社会主义新时代，而不是别的什么新时代。党要在新的历史方位上实现新时代党的历史使命，最根本的就是要高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜。
Our party has gone from the party that has led the country’s development under the conditions of external blockade and planned economy to become the party that has led the country’s development under the conditions of opening to the outside world and developing socialist market economy. Our party is a Marxist ruling party, but at the same time it is a Marxist revolutionary party. We must maintain the same vigour, revolutionary enthusiasm and spirit of the past revolutionary wars and carry out revolutionary work to the end…” 我们党历经革命、建设、改革，已经从领导人民为夺取全国政权而奋斗的党，成为领导人民掌握全国政权并长期执政的党；已经从受到外部封锁和实行计划经济条件下领导国家建设的党，成为对外开放和发展社会主义市场经济条件下领导国家建设的党。我们党是马克思主义执政党，但同时是马克思主义革命党，要保持过去革命战争时期的那么一股劲、那么一股革命热情、那么一种拼命精神，把革命工作做到底.
“To achieve prosperity and lasting stability of the Party and country, all Party members must maintain the revolutionary spirit and spirit of struggle, and be brave in carrying forward the great social revolution led by our party and the people, never be proud of victory; they must never slacken off because of achievements, never back down because of difficulties, and strive to make socialism with Chinese characteristics show a stronger and more convincing force of truth.” 要实现党和国家兴旺发达、长治久安，全党同志必须保持革命精神、革命斗志，勇于把我们党领导人民进行的伟大社会革命继续推进下去，决不能因为胜利而骄傲，决不能因为成就而懈怠，决不能因为困难而退缩，努力使中国特色社会主义展现更加强大、更有说服力的真理力量。
Page 2: The entire second page is dedicated to Xi’s meetings with other leaders in Uzbekistan. I am going to do a quick sweep via Xinhua’s English reportage. But let me point to the pattern in all of these engagements, or at least Party-state media reports of these engagements:
First, there’s generally personal praise for Xi Jinping and a reaffirmation of his continued rule after the 20th Party Congress
Second, the reports inform us of these foreign leaders being supportive of GDI, GSI and China’s “core interests,” with specific references to the one-China principle.
Third, apart from the report on the meeting with Tajik president Rahmon, I think all other reports mention GDI and GSI.
Fourth, do note the language being used to convey China’s satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction with a particular country’s policy. The report on the meeting with the Mongolian leader is particularly striking in this regard.
Fifth, there’s a pattern to all of these reports in that they reaffirm the worldview of China being in systemic competition with the US, although I am curious what Moscow thinks about Beijing constantly highlighting its opposition to external interference with Central Asian leaders.
Finally, and this is outside of the reporting in PD, but interesting that Xi, who was consistently masked, skipped the banquet in Samarkand last night.
Anyway, here’s the breakdown of the reports on the meetings.
“Xi stressed that at the moment the international situation is undergoing profound and complex changes. The more complex the situation is, the greater the need for the international community to strengthen solidarity and coordination. China welcomes Azerbaijan to join China in implementing the Global Development Initiative (GDI) and the Global Security Initiative (GSI). The two sides need to expand trade, improve the trade mix, increase the number of China-Europe Express freight train services, and ensure unimpeded international supply chains. Xi expressed confidence that the Belt and Road cooperation between China and Azerbaijan enjoys broad prospects. The two sides need to enhance people-to-people and cultural exchanges and deepen the friendship between the two peoples. China supports Azerbaijan in conducting cooperation with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), to work together for security, stability, development and prosperity in the region.”
Aliyev said that “Azerbaijan adheres to the one-China policy, firmly supports China in safeguarding national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity, firmly opposes any actions that interfere in China's internal affairs or split China, and firmly supports China in safeguarding its core interests. The Azerbaijani side supports the GSI and GDI proposed by the Chinese side, and will actively engage in Belt and Road cooperation with the Chinese side.”
Meeting with Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko:
“The two presidents decided to upgrade the bilateral relationship to an all-weather comprehensive strategic partnership…Xi stressed that China highly commends the firm support Belarus has always given China on issues concerning China's core interests. China firmly supports Belarus in taking a development path suited to its national conditions and opposes external forces' interference in Belarus' domestic affairs under any pretext. China is ready to work with Belarus to promote the implementation of the Global Development Initiative and Global Security Initiative, and safeguard international fairness and justice, Xi said. China will maintain close exchanges with Belarus, carry out mutually beneficial and win-win cooperation in investment, economy and trade and other fields, and develop a green, smart, eco-friendly and digitally advanced China-Belarus Industrial Park, he said.”
Lukashenko reportedly said that “Belarus is unswervingly committed to deepening relations with China. Belarus firmly supports China's development and growth of strength, China's national reunification and China's position on core issues such as Taiwan-related issues, Lukashenko said. Belarus will always stand shoulder to shoulder with China and be its most reliable friend. The Belarusian side is ready to learn more from China's successful development experience, and strengthen bilateral practical cooperation across the board, he said. Belarus supports a series of important initiatives put forward by China, and hopes to closely cooperate with China within multilateral frameworks such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Lukashenko wished the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China a full success. After the meeting, the two sides issued the joint statement on establishing all-weather comprehensive strategic partnership between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus and signed cooperation documents in such areas as science and technology, judiciary, agriculture and e-commerce.”
Meeting with Mongolian President Ukhnaa Khurelsukh:
“Xi emphasized that the trend of the world is surging forward, that peace and development are the common aspirations of people of all countries, and that unilateralism, hegemony and the Cold War mentality will eventually be swept away by the trend of history. (Quick thought: A not-so-subtle message about the fact that Beijing is there to stay as a neighbour while the US is far away.) China has always been committed to peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, and calls for building a community with a shared future for mankind, he said. China and Mongolia need to continue to treat each other as friends, support each other and engage in win-win cooperation to set a shining example of relations between neighbors, Xi said. The two countries, he said, need to strengthen strategic communication and policy coordination, uphold mutual respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, respect the development paths independently chosen by the two peoples, firmly support each other's core interests and major concerns, and look after and consolidate the political foundation for the development of bilateral relations.”
Khurelsukh reportedly said: “Issues related to Taiwan, Xinjiang, Tibet and so on are China's internal affairs, he said, stressing Mongolia staunchly abides by the one-China policy and firmly opposes the interference in China's internal affairs by any country. Mongolia highly commends China's important contributions to safeguarding world peace and security, and supports the BRI, the GDI and the GSI put forward by China, he said, adding that Mongolia is ready to build stronger synergy between the two countries' development strategies, and enhance bilateral practical cooperation in various fields such as economy and trade, railway and environment.”
Meeting with Tajik President Emomali Rahmon:
“China firmly supports Tajikistan in safeguarding national independence, sovereignty and security, Xi said, adding that China is always a neighbor, friend and partner that Tajikistan can trust and rely on. As international and regional situations are undergoing profound and complex transformation, China and Tajikistan need to continue to provide solid support for each other and bring about more concrete results in bilateral ties, Xi said. Xi underscored China's readiness to enhance practical cooperation with Tajikistan, expand import of quality Tajik agricultural products, elevate the scale and level of bilateral trade, advance cooperation in such areas as infrastructure, water management and transportation, discuss cooperation in green technology, digital economy and artificial intelligence, and assist Tajikistan in promoting cross-border transportation capability. China is ready to work with Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries to enhance the China+Central Asia (C+C5) Meeting mechanism and other cooperation, deepen counter-terrorism cooperation, and jointly safeguard peace and tranquility in this region, Xi said.”
No references to GDI or GSI in Rahmon’s reported remarks, but this is included: “He reaffirmed that Tajikistan unswervingly abides by the one-China principle, firmly maintains that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China's territory, and will continue to firmly support China's stance on issues concerning its core interests.” Also, “the two presidents also exchanged views on the situation in Afghanistan. The two sides signed cooperation documents in digital economy, green development, transportation and other fields.”
Meeting with President of Turkmenistan Serdar Berdimuhamedov:
China always views China-Turkmenistan relations from a strategic and long-term perspective, respects Turkmenistan's independently chosen development path that suits its own national conditions, and opposes any external interference in Turkmenistan's internal affairs and process of stability and development, Xi said, adding that China will continue to work with Turkmenistan to firmly support each other. Xi emphasized the need for the two sides to increase the size and scale of natural gas cooperation and inject new impetus into the development and revitalization of the two countries. He noted the need to accelerate cooperation in non-resource fields and to synergize the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) with Turkmenistan's strategy to revive the Great Silk Road. The two sides need to deliver on mutually setting up cultural centers as soon as possible to provide a new platform for people-to-people and cultural exchanges between the two countries, Xi said. The Chinese side is ready to set up a Luban workshop in Turkmenistan at an early date and continue to strengthen COVID-19 response cooperation with Turkmenistan, he said. The Chinese side is ready to strengthen cooperation with the Turkmen side within the China+Central Asia (C+C5) Meeting mechanism, implement the Global Development Initiative and Global Security Initiative, enhance international coordination, uphold the converging interests of the developing countries, and contribute to world peace and development, said the Chinese president.”
“Berdimuhamedov wished the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) a full success and expressed his conviction that under the wise leadership of President Xi, the 20th CPC National Congress will draw a blueprint for China's future development and guide China toward more great achievements…Turkmenistan firmly supports the one-China principle and firmly supports China in safeguarding its national sovereignty and territorial integrity, the president said. Turkmenistan supports a series of major initiatives put forward by China, which are conducive to maintaining international peace and security and achieving the sustainable development goals of the United Nations, he said.”
“China firmly supports Kyrgyzstan in independently choosing its own development path and safeguarding its national independence, sovereignty and security, Xi said, adding that China opposes any external forces interfering in Kyrgyzstan's internal affairs under any pretext. Xi stressed that under new circumstances, the two sides should increase firm support for each other and comprehensively deepen mutually beneficial cooperation. He urged the two sides to continue to synergize development strategies and well implement the plan for medium- and long-term economic and trade cooperation between China and Kyrgyzstan. China supports the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan railway project and is ready to push for an early start of the construction of the project, said the Chinese president. China supports more outstanding Chinese enterprises to invest in Kyrgyzstan and will facilitate the exchange of personnel and customs clearance of goods between the two countries, said Xi. China is willing to enhance coordination with Kyrgyzstan, build up the China + Central Asia (C+C5) meeting mechanism, well implement the Global Development Initiative (GDI) and Global Security Initiative (GSI), resolutely uphold international fairness and justice, and protect the common interests of developing countries, he said.
“The Kyrgyz side, Zhaparov said, firmly adheres to the one-China principle, firmly believes that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China's territory, firmly supports China's positions on affairs concerning its core interests, including those related to Taiwan, Xinjiang and Hong Kong, and is willing to strengthen cooperation with China in such fields as economy and trade, railway, pandemic fight and security, and deepen the Kyrgyzstan-China comprehensive strategic partnership. The Kyrgyz side endorses the GSI and GDI proposed by China, which are of great significance to promoting peace and development of the whole world, said the president.”
Page 4: A couple of reports to note. First, a report on Li Keqiang’s comments on promoting mass entrepreneurship and innovation. Li said that:
“Employment is vital to the people’s wellbeing, and stable employment is an important sign that the economy is operating within a proper range. Entrepreneurship has created a large number of jobs, and innovation has helped create many businesses. Mass entrepreneurship has promoted the the financial development of large and medium-sized enterprises; the rapid growth of new kinetic energy, and the proportion of new industries, new formats and new models in the total economic output is constantly rising.” 就业是最大的民生，就业稳是经济运行在合理区间的重要标志。创业带动了大量就业，创新成就众多创业。双创推动大中小企业融通发展，促进了新动能快速成长，新产业新业态新模式占经济总量的比重不断上升.
Li further said that entrepreneurship and innovation require a stable economic environment. In this regard, he added that China had introduced a timely policy package this year and made full use of its policy toolkit to steer the economy back on track. The tax refunds and tax and fee cuts this year clearly exceeded those of 2020. He urged more efforts to continue protecting market entities' property rights and legitimate rights and interests in accordance with the law, and to fully implement tax and fee cuts, rent reduction and exemption and other favourable measures.
Finally, he concluded by saying that “all localities and departments should follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, implement the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, fully implement the new development concept, efficiently coordinate epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, deepen reform and opening up, strengthen innovation-driven development, and promote steady and long-term economic growth.” 各地区各部门要以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导，落实党中央、国务院部署，全面贯彻新发展理念，高效统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展，深化改革开放，强化创新驱动，推动经济行稳致远.
Next, there’s a report (English report) on Li Zhanshu’s visit to Nepal. This is an interesting visit since he met with leaders from the political spectrum in the country; also, elections are due in Nepal later this year. I guess this visit also is indicative of intensified Chinese engagement in Nepal’s internal affairs. Anyway, Xinhua reports that Li met with Nepalese President Bidya Devi Bhandari and Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, and held talks with Sapkota and Chairman of National Assembly of Nepal Ganesh Prasad Timilsina, separately.
While meeting with Bhandari, Li said:
“President Xi paid a historic state visit to Nepal in 2019, during which the two heads of state elevated the China-Nepal relationship to a strategic partnership of cooperation featuring ever-lasting friendship for development and prosperity, offering strategic guidance for the long-term development of bilateral ties…He thanked the Nepalese side for unswervingly adhering to the one-China principle, and supporting China's position on the Taiwan question and issues concerning Tibet, Xinjiang and human rights. China will continue to firmly support Nepal's efforts to safeguard its sovereign independence and territorial integrity, to achieve prosperity and strength, Li said. He welcomed the Nepalese side to actively participate in the Global Development Initiative and Global Security Initiative proposed by Xi, and congratulated Nepal for its upcoming National Day on Sept. 20.”
Meeting with PM Deuba, Li said: “China has always regarded Nepal as a priority in neighborhood diplomacy. The two sides should continue to understand and support each other on issues concerning each other's core interests and major concerns, and jointly uphold true multilateralism. Li called for advancing high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, strengthening exchanges and cooperation in trade and investment, infrastructure, customs clearance and other areas, and jointly building the Trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network to bring tangible benefits to the people of both countries.”
The report also adds that “Li briefed the Nepalese side about the upcoming 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC). The Nepalese leaders said that as a friendly neighboring country, Nepal is happy with the great development achievements of the Chinese people under the leadership of the CPC. Under the leadership of Xi, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, China will surely be able to successfully realize the second centenary goal, they said, adding that they wish the 20th CPC National Congress a success. The Nepalese leaders unanimously reiterated that Nepal has always firmly adhered to the one-China principle and will not allow any force to use the Nepalese territory for anti-Chinese activities or harming China's interests. During his visit to Nepal, Li also met separately with KP Sharma Oli, chairman of the Community Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), and chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Center) Pushpa Kamal Dahal, also known as Prachanda. Li also signed with Sapkota a memorandum of understanding on cooperation between the NPC of China and Nepal's House of Representatives, met with Nepalese Foreign Minister Narayan Khadka and visited the Bhaktapur Durbar Square, which is undergoing post-quake reconstruction.”
Third, a report on Han Zheng attending the 19th China-ASEAN Expo and China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit, which takes place today. Fourth, a report on Wang Qishan attending a reception commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of late Cambodian King Father Norodom Sihanouk.
Page 6: Just one report to note. There’s a new document issued by the State Council, specifying some 20 measures to reduce institutional transaction costs and expand market access for businesses.
Page 9: The page is dedicated to articles under the theme of comprehensively deepening reform, which Xi has pursued with “political courage and wisdom.” The crux is that under Xi, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics has become more mature, the governance system is more modern and governance capacity has enhanced and the cause of the Party and the country has shown new vitality. 全面深化改革向广度和深度进军，中国特色社会主义制度更加成熟更加定型，国家治理体系和治理能力现代化水平不断提高，党和国家事业焕发出新的生机活力。本期观察版围绕新时代10年的伟大变革在改革开放史上具有里程碑意义进行阐述.
The lead piece is by the NDRC’s Office of Policy Studies.
The first section of the article talks about China’s economic development over the past decade. For instance, China’s economic strength has leapt to a new level, with the total economic output rising from 53.9 trillion yuan in 2012 to 114.4 trillion yuan in 2021, accounting for 11.4% of the world economy to over 18%, and per capita GDP rising from $6,300 to $12,551, approaching close to the threshold of high-income countries. 经济实力跃上新台阶，经济总量从2012年的53.9万亿元上升到2021年的114.4万亿元，占世界经济比重从11.4%上升到超过18%，人均国内生产总值从6300美元上升到12551美元，接近高收入国家门槛.
It adds that China’s “R&D investment ranks second in the world. The total number of R&D personnel and the number of invention patent applications have ranked first in the world for many years. Breakthroughs have been made in many fields such as manned spaceflight, lunar exploration, and deep-sea exploration. The potential for coordinated development of urban and rural areas has been continuously released, major regional strategies have been solidly advanced, and the coordination of regional development has been further enhanced; New achievements have been made in the integration of urban and rural areas. The urbanisation rate of permanent residents has increased from 53.1% in 2012 to 64.7% in 2021, and the modernisation of agriculture and rural areas has been accelerated. A major step has been taken in the construction of a Beautiful China…The energy consumption per unit of GDP has dropped by 26.2% cumulatively, and the phased objective of the tough battle against pollution has been successfully achieved. People's livelihood has been improved in all senses, and all 98.99 million rural poor people under the current standard have been lifted out of poverty, historically resolving the problem of absolute poverty that had plagued the Chinese nation for thousands of years; per capita disposable income of residents increased from 16,500 yuan in 2012 to 35,100 yuan in 2021; the world's largest social security system has been built, and the people's sense of gain, happiness and security has been significantly improved. 创新型国家建设成果丰硕，研发经费投入稳居世界第二，研发人员总量、发明专利申请量连续多年居世界首位，在载人航天、探月工程、深海探测等诸多领域取得突破性进展。城乡区域协调发展潜力不断释放，区域重大战略扎实推进，区域发展协调性进一步增强；城乡一体化发展取得新成效，常住人口城镇化率从2012年的53.1%上升到2021年的64.7%，农业农村现代化加速推进。美丽中国建设迈出重大步伐，绿水青山就是金山银山理念深入人心，生态文明建设发生历史性、转折性、全局性变化，单位国内生产总值能耗累计下降26.2%，污染防治攻坚战阶段性目标胜利完成。人民生活全方位改善，现行标准下9899万农村贫困人口全部脱贫，历史性地解决了困扰中华民族几千年的绝对贫困问题；居民人均可支配收入从2012年的1.65万元增长到2021年的3.51万元；建成了世界最大的社会保障体系，人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感显著提升.
It concludes this bit by arguing that:
“Looking back on the great achievements made in China’s economic and social development over the past 10 years, we deeply realise that it is precisely because of General Secretary Xi Jinping has been at the helm as the core of the CPC Central Committee and the whole party and because of the the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for the new era that we have been able to withstand one risk after another, overcome one difficulty and one danger after another and constantly achieve new great victories of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, and promote the realisation of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation into an irreversible historical process. On the new journey, we must profoundly understand the decisive significance of the Two Establishments, unswervingly safeguard General Secretary Xi Jinping’s position as the core of the CPC Central Committee and the whole party, and more consciously arm our minds with Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, so as to continue to push forward the great historical cause of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.” 回顾10年来我国经济社会发展取得的伟大成就，我们深刻感悟到，正是因为有习近平总书记作为党中央的核心、全党的核心掌舵领航，有习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想科学指引，我们才能经受住一个又一个风险考验、跨越一个又一个难关险滩，不断夺取新时代中国特色社会主义新的伟大胜利，推动实现中华民族伟大复兴进入不可逆转的历史进程。新征程上，我们必须深刻领悟“两个确立”的决定性意义，坚定不移维护习近平总书记党中央的核心、全党的核心地位，更加自觉地用习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想武装头脑、指导实践、推动工作，继续把中华民族伟大复兴的历史伟业推向前进.\
The second section argues that since the 18th Party Congress, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core has broken through the shackles of ideas and concepts with unprecedented determination and strength, broken through the barriers of entrenched, vested interests, and resolutely broken down the drawbacks of various systems and mechanisms, and initiated a magnificent process of reform. 随着实践发展，一些深层次体制机制问题日益显现，改革进入攻坚期和深水区。党的十八大以来，以习近平同志为核心的党中央以前所未有的决心和力度冲破思想观念的束缚，突破利益固化的藩篱，坚决破除各方面体制机制弊端，开启了气势如虹、波澜壮阔的改革进程.
The next paragraph talks about these big changes:
Adhering to making the market playing a decisive role in resource allocation, while enhancing the role of the government, and steadily advancing the construction of a high-standard market system.
Adhering to the ‘two unwaverings’, i.e., strengthening SOEs while optimising the development environment of the private economy.
Adhering to the principle of distribution according to work, improve the system and mechanism of distribution according to factors, and keep expanding the scale of the middle-income group.
Improving systems like property rights protection and ensuring fair competition, and continuously optimising the market-oriented and law-based international business environment.
The construction of a new open economy system was accelerated; this includes Foreign Investment Law, the negative list system and free trade ports and zones.
The next section argues that over the past 10 years, China has encountered and navigated rare challenges.
Since the 18th Party Congress, the world has undergone great changes unseen in a century, and the characteristics of changes in the world, the times, and history have become more obvious. Changes in the external environment have brought many new risks and challenges. The tasks of domestic reform, development and stability are facing many new situations and new problems. ‘Black swan’ and ‘grey rhinoceros’ incidents have occurred from time to time, and the risks and challenges faced by China's development have risen unprecedentedly.” 党的十八大以来，世界百年未有之大变局加速演进，世界之变、时代之变、历史之变的特征更加明显，外部环境变化带来许多新的风险挑战，国内改革发展稳定面临不少新情况新问题，“黑天鹅”“灰犀牛”事件时有发生，我国发展面临的风险挑战空前上升.
But “over the past 10 years, the CPC Central Committee with comrade Xi Jinping at the core has keenly observed and scientifically grasped the new characteristics and trends of the development and changes in the domestic and international situations, made overall plans to coordinate development and security, boosted confidence, faced difficulties, dared to fight and win, made efforts to prevent and resolve major risks, withstood the challenges of risks from politics, economy, ideology, nature and other aspects, and comprehensively strengthened national security.” 10年来，以习近平同志为核心的党中央敏锐洞察和科学把握国内外形势发展变化的新特点新趋势，统筹发展和安全，坚定信心、迎难而上，敢于斗争、敢于胜利，着力防范化解重大风险，经受住了来自政治、经济、意识形态、自然界等方面的风险挑战考验，国家安全得到全面加强.
In this context, the piece talks about COVID containment, food and energy security and ensuring supply of commodities, supply chain stability and breakthroughs in core technologies.
The final section of the article talks about how all of this essentially is part of the pursuit of Chinese style modernisation.
Page 10: A report on nuclear energy expansion in China. Since 2021, 5 new commercial nuclear power units have been put into operation, and 9 new nuclear power units have been started. As of now, China has 53 nuclear power units in commercial operation with a total installed capacity of 55.6 million kilowatts; 23 nuclear power units are under construction, with a total installed capacity of 24.19 million kilowatts. 2021年以来，新投入商运核电机组5台，新开工核电机组9台，其中自主三代核电“华龙一号”进入批量化建设阶段。截至目前，我国商运核电机组53台，总装机容量5560万千瓦，在建核电机组23台，总装机容量2419万千瓦，我国在建机组装机容量连续保持全球第一.
Page 11: There’s an article by Cao Wenze who is the Vice President at the China Pudong Cadre College. In this, he talks about Xi’s speech to provincial and ministerial-level cadres in July, and says that the great rejuvenation will not be achieved by beating gongs and drums.
One must “thoroughly study and implement the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speech, sum up and make good use of the great struggle experience accumulated by the Party, deeply grasp the historical characteristics of the new great struggle, constantly realise the new development of the cause of the Party and the country in the course of advancing the great struggle, and courageously advance towards the Chinese dream of realising the goal of the second century and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.” 踏上新征程，必须深入学习贯彻习近平总书记重要讲话精神，总结运用好党积累的伟大斗争经验，深刻把握新的伟大斗争的历史特点，在推进伟大斗争中不断实现党和国家事业新发展，向着实现第二个百年奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦奋勇前进.
I am not doing a full breakdown, but it’s worth reading his description of the challenges that the Party faces. It’s all about the external environment and domestic environment being much more challenging, difficult and volatile.