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Document No. 1 Breakdown - Use of AI in Militaries - Shi Taifeng Meets Panchen Lama - Wang Yi's Meetings with Baerbock & Scholz - Wang-Bilawal Meeting
Hi folks, as promised, I am doing a breakdown of Document No. 1 which deals with rural revitalisation. This was published in the paper on Tuesday. Along with this, I thought I’d cover reports from Wang Yi’s visit to Europe and a couple of interesting stories in today’s PD.
Anyway, let’s start with Document No. 1. The first part of the document basically talks about the “three rurals” work, i.e., work on agriculture, rural areas, and farmers.
The document calls for the following:
stabilise production and ensure the supply of grain and important agricultural products
boost the construction of agricultural infrastructure
strengthen support for agricultural science, technology and equipment
consolidate and expand the achievements of poverty alleviation
promote the high-quality development of rural industries
Goals and measures are detailed for each of these. Section 1 of the document deals with ensuring the stable production and supply of grain and important agricultural products. There are five broad points under this:
To ensure that the national grain output remains above 1.3 trillion jin (650 billion kilograms), all localities must stabilise the area under cultivation, focus on per unit yield, and strive to increase production. Among other things, this point calls to “continue to increase the minimum purchase price of wheat, reasonably determine the minimum purchase price of rice, stabilise rice subsidies, and improve the mechanism for ensuring the supply and price stability of agricultural materials.” 继续提高小麦最低收购价，合理确定稻谷最低收购价，稳定稻谷补贴，完善农资保供稳价应对机制. Improve the compensation mechanism for the interests of major grain-producing areas, and increase the scale of incentive funds for major grain-producing counties. 健全主产区利益补偿机制，增加产粮大县奖励资金规模. Gradually expand the scope of full-cost insurance and planting income insurance for rice, wheat, and corn. 逐步扩大稻谷小麦玉米完全成本保险和种植收入保险实施范围. Promote the the introduction of a food security law. 推动出台粮食安全保障法。
Expand the acreage of soybeans and oil crops. “Improve subsidies for corn and soybean producers, and implement pilot projects of full cost insurance and planting income insurance for soybeans. Coordinate comprehensive support measures for rapeseed…Support the development of woody oil plants, implement the three-year action to accelerate the development of the camellia oleifera industry…” 完善玉米大豆生产者补贴，实施好大豆完全成本保险和种植收入保险试点。统筹油菜综合性扶持措施，推行稻油轮作，大力开发利用冬闲田种植油菜。支持木本油料发展，实施加快油茶产业发展三年行动，落实油茶扩种和低产低效林改造任务. For those interested, China’s domestic soybean output reached 40.57 billion jin in 2022; corn output was 554.41 billion jin.
Develop modern facility agriculture. This covers building rice seedling centres and vegetable seedling centres; the construction of facilities for drying grain, refrigerating agricultural products and cold chain logistics facilities; upgrading large-scale livestock and poultry farms and aquaculture ponds; the “scientific use of the Gobi desert to develop facility agriculture on the premise of protecting the ecology and not increasing total water use; and encouraging local governments to grant credit discounts for facility agriculture. 加快发展水稻集中育秧中心和蔬菜集约化育苗中心。加快粮食烘干、农产品产地冷藏、冷链物流设施建设。集中连片推进老旧蔬菜设施改造提升。推进畜禽规模化养殖场和水产养殖池塘改造升级。在保护生态和不增加用水总量前提下，探索科学利用戈壁、沙漠等发展设施农业。鼓励地方对设施农业建设给予信贷贴息.
Build a diversified food supply system that integrates grain, feeding, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, and plants, animals and microorganisms simultaneously.
Coordinate regulation and control over grain and important agricultural products. This basically deals with ensuring supplies. Among other things, it says: “improve the cotton target price policy. Continue to implement the subsidy policy for the promotion of improved varieties of sugar cane. Improve the natural rubber support policy. Strengthen the regulation of production, storage and transportation of agricultural materials such as chemical fertilisers. Give full play to the role of international trade in agricultural products and implement the diversification strategy of agricultural products import in depth.” 完善棉花目标价格政策。继续实施糖料蔗良种良法技术推广补助政策。完善天然橡胶扶持政策。加强化肥等农资生产、储运调控。发挥农产品国际贸易作用，深入实施农产品进口多元化战略。
Section 2 is about construction of agricultural infrastructure. This has four points:
Strengthen the protection and use control of cultivated land. Under this, the document calls for the third national soil survey to be conducted.
Strengthen the construction of high-standard farmland. The goal for this is to turn the 1.546 billion mu (103.1 million hectares) of farmland into high-standard land. You can check out my edition from January 16, 2023, for an understanding about what a high-standard farmland classification means.
Strengthen the construction of water conservancy infrastructure
Strengthen agricultural disaster prevention and mitigation capacities. It calls to “carry out a new round of agricultural climate resources survey and agricultural climate zoning.” It also talks about the need to improve agricultural meteorological observation facilities, strengthening the construction of drought and flood disaster prevention system, work on prevention and control of major animal diseases, and enhance and control and prevention of forest and grassland fires.
Section 3 discusses support for agricultural science, technology and equipment.
Promote breakthroughs in key agricultural technologies. This emphasises core technologies and basic research, without going into any details.
Implementation of the seed industry revitalization action. “Complete the national agricultural germplasm resources survey. Build an open, collaborative, shared application mechanism for the precise identification and evaluation of germplasm resources. Comprehensively implement major biological breeding projects, solidly promote national breeding joint research and livestock and poultry genetic improvement programs, and accelerate the cultivation of new varieties such as high-yield and high-oil soybeans, short-growing rapeseed, and saline-alkali-resistant crops. Accelerate the pace of industrialisation of corn and soybean biological breeding, expand the scope of pilot projects in an orderly manner, and standardise planting management.” 完成全国农业种质资源普查。构建开放协作、共享应用的种质资源精准鉴定评价机制。全面实施生物育种重大项目，扎实推进国家育种联合攻关和畜禽遗传改良计划，加快培育高产高油大豆、短生育期油菜、耐盐碱作物等新品种。加快玉米大豆生物育种产业化步伐，有序扩大试点范围，规范种植管理。
Accelerate the research and development and promotion of advanced agricultural machinery. In this, the document calls for developing intelligent agricultural machinery. “Support the integrated application of Beidou intelligent monitoring terminal and auxiliary driving system. Improve policies for subsidising the purchase and use of agricultural machinery, explore ways to subsidise agricultural machinery in line with the amount of work being done, and ensure that local governments fulfil their statutory expenditures responsibility.” 支持北斗智能监测终端及辅助驾驶系统集成应用。完善农机购置与应用补贴政策，探索与作业量挂钩的补贴办法，地方要履行法定支出责任。
Promote the green development of agriculture. This calls to promote the development of pilot zones and observation and test bases for green agricultural development; strengthen the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution sources such as cadmium in agricultural land soil; establish a monitoring system for agricultural ecological environment protection. Introduce regulations on compensation for ecological protection. Strictly implement the system of fishing moratorium, implement the ten-year ban on fishing in the Yangtze River, and consolidate the achievements of resettlement guarantee for retired fishermen…
Section 4 calls to build on achievements of poverty alleviation. Among other things, in this section, the document says that the central government will promote the proportion of rural revitalisation subsidy funds for industrial development; more than 60 percent of the central government subsidies for rural revitalization will be used to develop local industries, supporting the shortcomings of technology, facilities and marketing. Encourage qualified farmers in poverty-stricken areas to develop courtyard economies. Carry out various forms of consumer assistance in depth, continue to promote the establishment of demonstration cities and production areas for consumer assistance, and support poverty-stricken areas to build regional public brands. Manage and make good use of poverty alleviation project assets. Ensure that the employment scale of labourers lifted out of poverty is stable at around 30 million. 中央财政衔接推进乡村振兴补助资金用于产业发展的比重力争提高到60%以上，重点支持补上技术、设施、营销等短板。鼓励脱贫地区有条件的农户发展庭院经济。深入开展多种形式的消费帮扶，持续推进消费帮扶示范城市和产地示范区创建，支持脱贫地区打造区域公用品牌。财政资金和帮扶资金支持的经营性帮扶项目要健全利益联结机制，带动农民增收。管好用好扶贫项目资产。深化东西部劳务协作，实施防止返贫就业攻坚行动，确保脱贫劳动力就业规模稳定在3000万人以上.
Section 5 deals with high-quality development of rural industries. This talks about support for:
upgrading the processing of agricultural products, supporting family farms, farmers' cooperatives and micro, small and medium-sized enterprises
building industrial parks for processing agricultural products in major producing areas
improving the network for the distribution of agricultural products, upgrade wholesale markets in production areas, distribution centres, and sales centres, and build a number of large warehouses in suburban areas
development of modern rural service industries
developing rural catering, shopping, culture, sports, tourism and leisure, care for the elderly, information agencies and other life services
encouraging new energy vehicles and green smart household appliances to be sold in rural areas where conditions permit
new rural industries and new forms of business, including industrial parks, cultural industry, rural leisure and tourism, e-commerce, etc.
Section 6 deals with boosting farmers’ incomes. This covers:
Employment of rural residents and migrant workers
Development of entrepreneurship
Improving the efficiency of agricultural operations
Improve the guidelines for social capital to invest in agriculture and rural areas, and strengthen the supervision of the whole process of introducing, using and withdrawing capital to the countryside. 完善社会资本投资农业农村指引，加强资本下乡引入、使用、退出的全过程监管.
Improve the qualification examination, project audit and risk prevention systems for social capital to obtain land management rights through circulation, and effectively protect farmers' interests. 健全社会资本通过流转取得土地经营权的资格审查、项目审核和风险防范制度，切实保障农民利益.
Study and formulate guidelines on extending the second round of land contracts for another 30 years after they expire. 研究制定第二轮土地承包到期后再延长30年试点工作指导意见.
Deepen trials to bring rural collective land for commercial construction into the market, and explore the establishment of an effective adjustment mechanism for land value-added benefits that takes into account the interests of the state, rural collective economic organisations and farmers. Protect the legitimate land rights and interests of farmers who have settled in cities, and encourage voluntary paid transfer according to law. 深化农村集体经营性建设用地入市试点，探索建立兼顾国家、农村集体经济组织和农民利益的土地增值收益有效调节机制。保障进城落户农民合法土地权益，鼓励依法自愿有偿转让.
Section 7 calls for the construction of a livable, business-friendly and beautiful countryside. This covers planning, infrastructure, utilities and public services.
Section 8 deals with strengthening of grassroots party organisations, rural governance and reforming old customs, i.e., spiritual civilisation. I am sharing below the paragraph on rural spiritual civilisation.
“Carry out in-depth publicity and education on core socialist values, and continue to carry out publicity and education activities in rural areas calling for obeying the Party's commands, experiencing the Party’s grace/kindness, and following the Party. Deepen the creation of mass spiritual civilisation in rural areas, expand the construction of civilised practice centres in the new era and county-level media integration centres, and support rural self-organised mass cultural activities. Pay attention to family education and family style construction. Carry out in-depth implementation of the agricultural cultural heritage protection project, strengthen the protection and utilisation of important agricultural cultural heritage. The farmers' harvest festival will be held well. Promote local governments to formulate norms for changing customs according to local conditions, strengthen the binding role of village rules and regulations. Party cadres should take the lead in demonstrating and solidly carry out special treatment of outstanding problems such as those related to bride prices and grand ceremonies. Promote the reform of rural funeral customs.” 深入开展社会主义核心价值观宣传教育，继续在乡村开展听党话、感党恩、跟党走宣传教育活动。深化农村群众性精神文明创建，拓展新时代文明实践中心、县级融媒体中心等建设，支持乡村自办群众性文化活动。注重家庭家教家风建设。深入实施农耕文化传承保护工程，加强重要农业文化遗产保护利用。办好中国农民丰收节。推动各地因地制宜制定移风易俗规范，强化村规民约约束作用，党员、干部带头示范，扎实开展高价彩礼、大操大办等重点领域突出问题专项治理。推进农村丧葬习俗改革.
The final section covers governance systems and mechanisms.
With this done, let me also highlight some stories from today’s edition of the newspaper.
First, there’s a report on Shi Taifeng, the head of the United Front Works Department, meeting the Panchen Lama, Bainqen Erdini Qoigyijabu.
As per the report, Shi hoped that the Panchen Lama “would keep in mind General Secretary Xi Jinping's ardent entrustment, maintain a high degree of consistency in ideology, politics and action with the Party Central Committee with comrade Xi Jinping at the core; play a leading and exemplary role and study and implement the spirit of the 20th Party Congress deeply understand the decisive significance of the Two Establishments, consciously contribute to safeguarding national unity and ethnic solidarity, and comprehensively promote the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation; continue to improve knowledge and temper moral character, and make new achievements in upholding the principle of developing religions in the Chinese context, and advancing the adaptation of Tibetan Buddhism to the socialist society. 石泰峰向班禅和藏传佛教界人士祝贺藏历水兔新年。石泰峰对班禅过去一年各方面取得的进步给予肯定，希望他牢记习近平总书记的殷切嘱托，在思想上政治上行动上同以习近平同志为核心的党中央保持高度一致；发挥引领示范作用，深入学习贯彻党的二十大精神，深刻领悟“两个确立”的决定性意义，自觉为维护祖国统一和民族团结、全面推进中华民族伟大复兴作贡献；继续精进学识、锤炼品德，在坚持我国宗教中国化方向、促进藏传佛教与社会主义社会相适应中作出新成绩.
The Panchen Lama offered Shi a khata and then said that he would firmly bear in mind the earnest instructions issued by General Secretary Xi Jinping, conscientiously study and implement the guiding principles of the 20th Party Congress, inherit and carry forward the glorious tradition of the Panchen Lama of loving the country and religion, and unswervingly safeguard national unity and ethnic solidarity, actively contribute to aligning Tibetan Buddhism to the Chinese context and socialist society and live up to the ardent expectations of the party and the country. 班禅向石泰峰敬献了哈达，表示将始终牢记习近平总书记的谆谆教导，认真学习贯彻党的二十大精神，继承和发扬历世班禅爱国爱教的光荣传统，坚定不移维护祖国统一和民族团结；潜心修行，服务信众，努力为推进藏传佛教中国化、与社会主义社会相适应贡献力量，不辜负党和国家的殷切期望.
Second, there’s a report on remarks by a Chinese official attending the first international summit on military AI, co-hosted by the Netherlands and South Korea this week at The Hague.
Reuters’ report on the summit said that “more than 60 countries including the U.S. and China signed a modest ‘call to action’ on Thursday endorsing the responsible use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the military. Human rights experts and academics noted the statement was not legally binding and failed to address concerns like AI-guided drones, 'slaughterbots' that could kill with no human intervention, or the risk that an AI could escalate a military conflict.”
The PD report focuses on Chinese representative Tian Jian’s comments. Tian said that China has always attached great importance to AI security governance. China has continuously strengthened legal, military, technological, and ethical research, improved relevant security governance, and submitted two position papers to the United Nations on regulating the military application of artificial intelligence and strengthening artificial intelligence ethical governance.
He added that countries should oppose seeking absolute military advantage and hegemony through AI and work through the United Nations. Tian said that China opposes the use of artificial barriers to science and technology, adding that it aims to ensure that all countries fully enjoy the right to technological development and peaceful use.
Let’s now turn to Wang Yi’s recent meetings in Europe.
First, while in Italy, Wang met with President Sergio Mattarella. Xinhua says:
“China has brought the COVID-19 pandemic under control, and its economic prospects are increasingly promising, Wang has noted. Suggesting the two sides fully resume exchanges at all levels and promote mutually beneficial cooperation in all areas, Wang said that the two countries, as natural partners in the joint construction of the Belt and Road, can further tap their potential to inject strong impetus into the development of bilateral ties. Wang has said that the world is facing changes and disorder, that geopolitical conflicts are reemerging in Europe, and that the prospect for global economic recovery is bleak. China firmly believes that the trend of peace, development and cooperation is unstoppable and that unilateralism, protectionism and hegemony lead nowhere, the diplomat has said. He has said that China is ready to work with Italy to practice multilateralism, safeguard the core position of the United Nations, improve global governance, and play a constructive role in promoting world peace and stability as well as the sound development of China-Europe relations.”
No mention in the Chinese press about Wang committing to Italian Deputy Prime Minister Antonio Tajani that Xi Jinping will be delivering a “peace speech” on the anniversary of the Ukraine war. Reuters had reported Tajani telling Italian media that “He told me that Xi will deliver a peace speech on the anniversary of the invasion of Ukraine.”
From Italy to Germany, where Wang met with Foreign Affairs Minister Annalena Baerbock and Chancellor Olaf Scholz at the sidelines of the Munich Security Conference.
“Although China and Germany have different social systems and cultural backgrounds, safeguarding world peace and promoting global development serves the common interests of the two countries and is also the two's common responsibility, Wang said. Germany attaches great importance to its relations with China, adheres to the one-China policy and hopes that Germany and China can restart exchanges and cooperation in various fields as soon as possible and further strengthen economic and trade exchanges, Baerbock said. Challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change show that global issues need to be addressed jointly and international order needs to be maintained through enhanced cooperation, she said, adding that Germany stands ready to strengthen communication and coordination with China on international affairs.
The two sides also exchanged views on the Ukraine issue. Wang said that he understands European countries' concerns over the Ukraine crisis. The longer the crisis drags on, the more damage Europe will suffer, and incidents like the Nord Stream explosions may occur from time to time, he said. … Denmark, Germany and Sweden were investigating the destruction, but all remain tight-lipped over who blew holes in the pipelines. China has always been committed to promoting peace talks on the Ukraine issue, Wang said, noting that no matter how complicated the situation is, China will never give up such efforts, and is ready to strengthen communication with Germany and other European countries to ease the situation as soon as possible.”
The report on the meeting with Scholz has Wang saying that “China and Germany can actively prepare for a new round of intergovernmental consultations and chart the course for the development of bilateral relations to keep China-Germany cooperation at world-leading levels…He added that both sides should support multilateralism and free trade, reject practices of decoupling and severing supply chains, and safeguard the stability of global production and supply chains.”
“For his part, Scholz said at the meeting that he was glad to learn that China has overcome the pandemic and agreed to restart cooperation in various fields and launch the next round of inter-governmental consultations as soon as possible. The German chancellor said that Germany would firmly develop economic and trade relations with China and oppose any form of decoupling, adding that strong Germany-China ties and mutually beneficial economic and trade cooperation are conducive to global stability and prosperity. The two also exchanged views on the Ukraine issue. Wang said that China and Germany, both independent major countries, shoulder common responsibility for maintaining world peace and addressing global challenges. China has always stood on the side of peace and committed itself to promoting peace talks and calling for an early ceasefire, the Chinese diplomat said, adding that he hoped Germany would play a constructive role in de-escalating the situation.”
Finally, while in Munich, Wang also met with Pakistani Foreign Minister Bilawal Bhutto Zardari. The report says:
“When meeting with Bilawal, Wang said that China firmly supports Pakistan in maintaining security and stability as well as achieving development and revitalization, and is willing to provide assistance to the best of its ability to help Pakistan overcome temporary difficulties. Wang said China and Pakistan are all-weather strategic cooperative partners and China-Pakistan friendship is rock solid. China is ready to work with Pakistan to implement the strategic consensus reached by the leaders of the two countries and build an even closer community of shared future in the new era, he said. For his part, Bilawal expressed satisfaction over the development of Pakistan-China relations. He stressed that China is Pakistan's all-weather friend and an important pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy is to strengthen relations with China and promote the construction of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Pakistan will resolutely fight terrorism and spare no effort to protect the safety of Chinese enterprises and citizens in Pakistan, he said. The two sides also exchanged views on strengthening mutual support under the current international situation.”
This bit about the international situation led to some balloon talk, as per the report. Wang told Bilawal that “China demands that the U.S. side show sincerity in solving the problem and stop doing such absurd things out of domestic political needs.”
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